A CPTED BIBLIOGRAPHY:

PUBLICATIONS RELATED TO URBAN SPACE, PLANNING, ARCHITECTURE AND CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN, 1975-2010

 

 

February, 2012

Sean E. Michael, PhD

Gregory Saville, MES, MCIP

Joel W. Warren

 

Click here to download a PDF of this document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.12 Edition

www.safecascadia.org


 

Acknowledgements

 

This compendium is the result of two different bibliographies. The first was completed by Sean Michael, Professor and Department Head of the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planing at Utah State University. The second was completed by Gregory Saville, an urban planner with AlterNation Consulting, during his 1980s graduate work at the Faculty of Environmental Studies at York University. Joel Warren oversaw consolidation and expansion of the two works during his Masters of Landscape Architecture at Utah State University. 

 

Our thanks go to the many graduaute students, colleagues, and friends who contributed and partially annotated this work over the years. They include: Anna Brassard, Paul Cozens, Misty Fitch, Chuck Genre, and Diane Zahm. Earlier versions have appeared in different venues through the years such as the 2003 ICA CPTED Bibliography available on CD through the International CPTED Association and the Latin America CPTED Region Corporation. In addition, Emerald Press has published a detailed literature review of basic 1st Generation CPTED studies (P. Cozens, G. Saville and D. Hillier, “Crime prevention through environmental design: A review and modern bibliography”, Property Management. 23(5), 2005).  Finally, an early version was available via The CPTED Page (www.thecptedpage.wsu.edu).  Today, the resource is jointly hosted through the web site of Safe Cascadia (www.safecascadia.org)

 


 

 

References

 

Ackerman, W. (1976). Spatial distribution and socioeconomic correlates of crime in San Bernardino, California. The California Geographer, 16, 29-42.

Ahlberg, J., & Knutsson, J. (1990). The risk of detection. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 6, 117-130.
This work examines means by which the likelihood of an offender being detected may be calculated. However, the formulas presented are not meant to be applied at the individual or situational level, rather they are for estimating figures for the populous of offenders. The authors discuss "the dark figure" (i.e., the number of "crimes not detected and crimes not reported") and "the clearance rate" (i.e., "the percentage of the crimes reported which are considered cleared" by police). The authors also point out that detection at the situational level is composed of "total risk of detection" and the "primary risk of detection". The primary risk refers to being caught in the act, versus all possible means of being detected (e.g., post facto). Surprisingly, the authors do not believe that offenders have much control over getting "caught red-handed", saying that "to get caught in the act is a random occurrence."

Ahlstrom, R. V. N., Adair, M., Euler, R. T., & Euler, R. C. (1992). Pothunting in Central Arizona: The Perry Mesa archeological site vandalism study (Cultural Resources Report No. 13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Akers, R., La Greca, A., Sellers, C., & Cochran, J. (1987). Fear of crime and victimization among the elderly in different types of communities. Criminology, 25 (3), 487-506.

Alfano, S. S., & Magill, A. W. (Eds.). (1976). Vandalism and outdoor recreation: Symposium proceedings. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Allatt, P. (1984). Residential security: Containment and displacement of burglary. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice. 23, 99-116.

American Institute of Architects. (2004). Security Planning and Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

American Institute of Research. (1980). The link between crime and the built environment: Vol. 1- The current state of knowledge. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, LEAA, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Amir, M. (1971). Patterns in forcible rape. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Andropogon Associates. (1989). Landscape management and restoration program for the woodlands of Central Park. New York, NY: Report for Central Park Administration.

Angel. S. (1968). Discouraging crime through city planning. Berkeley, CA: Institute of Urban and Regional Development.

Anson, B. (1986). Removing walkways is not nearly enough. Town and Country Planning, 56(3), 174-175.

Archea, J. C. (1985). The use of architectural props in the conduct of criminal acts. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 2, 245-259.

Armitage, R. (2000). An evaluation of secured by design housing within West Yorkshire (Home Office Briefing Note 7/00). London: Crown Copyright.

Armitage. R. (2006). Predicting and preventing: Developing a risk assessment mechanism for residential houses. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 8(3): 137-149.

Armitage, R. (May 2002). To CCTV or not to CCTV? A review of current research into the effectiveness of CCTV systems in reducing crime. NACRO Crime and Social Policy Newsletter, 1-8.

Armitage, R., & Everson, S. (2003). Building for burglars. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 5(4), 15-25. 2003.

Armstrong, G., & Wilson, M. (1973). Delinquency and some aspects of housing.  In C. Ward (Ed), Vandalism. London: Architectural Press.

Ash, M. (1975). Architecture, planning and urban crime. Proceedings of the National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders Conference. London, UK: NACRO.

Athena Research Corporation. (1981). Robber interview report. Presented to the Crime Committee of the Southland Corporation, June 9, 1991. Dallas, TX.

Atkins, S., Husain, S., & Storey, A. (1991). The influence of street lighting on crime and fear of crime (Paper 28). London: Home Office, Crime Prevention Unit.

Responding to the lack of hard data on street lighting's impact on crime, this work sought to fill the gap by studying a London borough undergoing relighting, partly to reduce crime. Working from an immense data set the study found "No evidence...to support the hypothesis that improved street lighting reduces reported crime....[a]lthough some areas and some crime types did show reductions in night-time crime relative to daylight control." Additionally, it found "[t]he perceived safety of women walking alone after dark in the re-lit area was improved, but few other effects were statistically significant.

Atlas, R. (2002). The sustainability of CPTED. The CPTED Journal, 1(1), 3-1.

Atlas, R. (2002b). The sustainability of CPTED: Less magic, more science! Journal of the International Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Association, 1(1), 3-14.

Atlas, R. (2008). 21st Century security and CPTED: Designing for critical infrastructure protection and crime prevention. New York: CRC Press.

This is the latest textbook on the basic principles and design strategies of CPTED (revised version due in 2012/2013). For decades CPTED basics were conveyed in CPTED books by Timothy Crowe and before that Oscar Newman’s classic Defensible Space. Atlas’s text updates those traditional works with new information on building design, evolving technologies, and new innovations such as SafeGrowth and 2nd Generation CPTED. The text also includes authors on a wide variety of topics: Gerry Cleveland and Gregory Saville discuss 2nd Generation CPTED; Mike Scott writes about CPTED and ATM machines; Doug Fitzgerald discusses engineering and CPTED; Richard Schnieder discusses safer schools; and Severin Sorensen and John Hayes discuss Situational Crime Prevention.

Atlas, R., & Leblanc, W. (1994). Environmental barriers to crime: Ergonomics in design. Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Avio, K. L., & Clarke, C. S. (1976). Property crime in Canada: An econometric study. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Avison, N. (1977). Patterns of crime in the lower mainland. Vancouver, BC: British Columbia Police Commission.

Ayoob, M. F. (1992). The truth about self-protection. New York: Bantam Doubleday.

Babs, Y., & Austin, M. (1989). Neighborhood environmental satisfaction, victimization, and social participation as determinants of perceived safety. Environment and Behavior, 21, 763-780.

Bagley, C. (1965). Juvenile delinquency in Exeter: An ecological and comparative study. Urban Studies, 2, 33-50.

Baldwin, J. (1972). A critique of delinquent schools in tower hamlets. British Journal of Criminology, 12(4), 390.

Baldwin, J. (1974). Problem housing estates: Perceptions of tenants, city officials, and criminologist. Social and Economic Administration, 8(2), 116-135.

Baldwin, J. (1975). Urban criminality and the problem estate. Local Government Studies. 1(4), 12-20.

Baldwin, J., & Bottoms, A. (1976). The urban criminals: A study in Sheffield. London: Tavistock Institute of Human Relations.

Baldwin, J. (1979). Ecological and areal studies in Great Britain and the United States. In N. Morris & M. Tonry (Eds.), Crime and Justice: an Annual Review of Research. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Bamisaiye, A. (1974). The spatial distribution of juvenile delinquency and adult crime in the city of Ibadan. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 2.

Barab, S. A., Dodge, T., Thomas, M, Jackson, C., and Tuzun, H. (2007). Our Designs and the Social Agendas They Carry. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol 16(2), 263-305.

Barr, R., & Pease, K. (1990). Crime placement, displacement and deflection. In M. Tonry and N. Norris (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research, 12. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Barr, R., & Pease, K. (1992). A place for every crime and every crime in its place: An alternative perspective on crime displacement. In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe & D. T. Herbert (Eds.), Crime, Policing, and Place. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Inc.

Baumer, T. L. (1978). Research on fear of crime in the United States. Victimology, 3, 254-264.

Baumer, T. L. (1985). Testing a general model for fear of crime: Data from a national sample. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 22, 239-255.

Baumer, T. L., & Hunter, A. (1978). Street Traffic, Social Integration, and Fear of Crime. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Center for Urban Affairs.

Beall, J. (2002). The people behind the walls: insecurity, identity and gated communities in Johannesburg, (Crisis States Programme Working Paper No. 10), London: DRC

Beato, C. (1998). Crime and opportunity in Brazil. International Sociological Association.

Beato, C., & Chaves, C. (June 1998). Determinants of criminality in Minas Gerais. Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Sociais, 13(37), 74-87.

Beavon, D. (1984). Crime and the environmental opportunity structure: The influence of street networks on the patterning of property offenses. (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Simon Fraser University: Burnaby, BC.

Bechtel, R. B. (1978). Undermanning theory and crime. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Theory Compendium. Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National Issues Center.

Becker, F. D. (February 1975). The effect of physical and social factors on residents' sense of security in multi-family housing developments. Journal of Architectural Research, 4(1), 18-24.

Belan, J. (1991, July). Safety and security in High Park, Toronto. Landscape Architectural Review, 19-21.

Bell, J., & Burke, B. (1992). Cruising Cooper Street. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

Bell, M. M., & Bell, M. M. (1987). Crime control: Deterrence and target hardening. In E. H. Johnson (Ed.), Handbook on crime and delinquency prevention (pp. 45-68). New York, NY: Greenwood Press.

Bellair, P. (November 1997). Social integration and community crime: Examining the importance of neighbor networks. Criminology, 35(4), 677-703.

Bellamy, L. (April 1996). Situational crime prevention and convenience store robbery. Security Journal, 7(1), 41-52.

Bell-Robotham, B., & Boydell, C. L. (1972). Crime in Canada: A distributional analysis. In C.

Boydell, C. F. Grindstaff, & P. Whitehead (Eds.), Deviant Behavior and Societal Reaction. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Bengtsson, A. (1970). Environmental planning for children's play. New York: Praeger.

Bennett, D. (1996). The geometry of an inner city park. Landscape Architect & Specifier News, 12, 32-36.

Bennett, J. W. (1969). Vandals wild. Portland, OR: Bennett Publishing,

"The purpose of Vandals Wild is to help create better understanding of the outdoors, to create concern about the worsening behavior problems,to show what is happening in our forests, waters and beaches (p. iii)." The authors is, as the work's title implies, talking about the impacts of vandalism. He goes on to discuss how it "kills" even inanimate objects in parks, discussing costs, causes, types and actions in the process.

Bennett, T. (1989). Burglars' choice of targets. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The geography of crime. (pp. 176-192).  New York: Routledge.

In this chapter the author explains the "situational approach" to studies of offending determinants, reviewing research methods and sampling techniques (including video-tape and interview method). The study discussed dealt with the concept of "risk, reward, and ease of entry" as perceived by burglars. The study found that decision to offend or not to offend was more influenced by risk (of being caught) cues than by reward or ease of entry cues. These findings are supported by a great deal of accumulated research.

Bennett, T. (1990). Evaluating neighbourhood watch. Aldershot, Hants: Gower.

Bennett, T., & Wright, R. (1983). Constraints and inducements to crime: The property offender's perspective. Cambridge, England: University of Cambridge, Institute of Criminology.

Bennett, T., & Wright, R. (1983b). Offenders' perception of targets, Home Office Research (Bulletin, 15, 18-20). London: H.M.S.O.

This paper briefly discusses methods and findings in using past offenders as subjects in studying situational crime prevention. It is one of the first such attempts, and the authors are well known now for their ongoing use of so-called "direct methods of investigation." Included are reviews of both photograph and videotape methods.

Bennett, T., & Wright, R. (1984). Constraints to burglary: The offender's perspective. In R. Clarke & T. Hope (Eds.), Coping with burglary. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.

Bennett, T., & Wright, R. (1984b). Burglars on burglary: Prevention and the offender. Aldershot, England: Gower.

Bernard-Butcher, D. (1991). Crime in the third dimension. A study of burglary patterns in a high density residential area. (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Simon Fraser University: Burnaby, BC.

Berry, D., Mullen, M., & Murray, T. (June 1998). Administering a healthy dose of security. Security Management, 42(6), 46-48.

Bevis, C., & Nutter, J. B. (1997). Changing street layouts to reduce residential burglary. St. Paul, MN: Governor's Commission of Crime Prevention and Control.

Awarded the 1st Prize at the Society's '77 Student Competition, this study found that dead end, cul-de-sac and L-type blocks experienced lower rates of crime than did through streets or t-type blocks (also submitted to Governor's Commission of Crime Prevention and Control, St. Paul, MN.

Beyleveld, D. (1980). A bibliography on general deterrence research. Farnborough, UK: Saxon House.

Beyleveld, D. (1979). Identifying, explaining and predicting deterrence. British Journal of Criminology, 19, 205-224.

Biron, L., & Ladouceur, C. (1991). The boy next door: Local teen-age burglars in Montreal. Security Journal, 2, 200-204.

Bischof, G., & Rosen, K. (1997). An ecological perspective on adolescent sexual offending. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 26(1-2), 67-68.

Blakely, E., & Gail, M. (1998). Forting up: Gated communities in the United States. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 15(1), 61-72.

Blakely, E. J., & Snyder, M. G. (1999). Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

Blalock, H. (1990). Hot spots and isocrimes in law enforcement decision making. Proceedings of the Police and Community Responses to Drugs Conference. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois at Chicago.

Blanchard, J. (1973). Proposal for a model residential building security sode. In U.S. Department of Justice, Deterrence of Crime in and around Residences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Blazicek, D. (1985). Patterns of victim selection among robbers: A theoretical and descriptive analysis. Paper presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Victimology. Zagreg, Yugoslavia.

Block, C. R. (1994). STAC hot spot areas: A statistical tool for law enforcement decisions. D. Zahm & P. Cromwell (Eds.), Proceedings of the international seminar on environmental criminology and crime analysis (pp. 61-75). Coral Gables, FL: Florida Statistical Analysis Center, Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute.

Block, C. R., & Block, R.L. (1980). Patterns of change in Chicago homicide: The twenties, the sixties, and the seventies. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

Block, C. R., Block, R., Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (1990). Chicago homicide from the sixties to the nineties: Have patterns of lethal violence changed? Paper presented at the 42ndAnnual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology. Baltimore, MA.

Block, R. L. (1977). Community, environment, and violent crime. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Panel. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Criminology.

Block, R. L. (1977b). Violent crime, environment, interaction and death. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Block, R. L. (1979). Community, environment and violent crime. Criminology, 17, 46-57.

Block, R. L. , & Block, C. R. (1995). Space, place, and crime: Hot spot areas and hot places of liquor-related crime. In J. Eck and D. Weisburd (Eds.), Crime and place. Monsey, NY: Willow Tree

Blumenauer, E. (2002). Taking the Public Hostage. Landscape Architecture, 92(11),140.

Boggs, S. (1971). Formal and informal crime control: An explanatory study of urban, suburban, and rural orientations. Sociological Quarterly, 12, 319-327.

Boggs, S. (1966). Urban crime patterns. American Sociological Review, 30, 899-908.

Bolden, C. M., & Sharitz, C. J. (1983). Security. In Dimensions of parking. (pp. 105-108). Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute and National Parking Association.

Booth, A. (1981). The built environment as a crime deterrent: A reexamination of defensible space. Criminology, 18, 557-570.

Booth, A., Welch S., & Johnson, D.R. (1976). Crowding and urban crime rates. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 11, 291-307.

Bottom, N. (1988). The parking lot and garage security handbook. Columbia, MD: Hanrow Press.

Bottoms, A. E. (1967).  Delinquency among immigrants. Race, 8.

Bottoms, A. E. (1974). [Review of defensible space by Oscar Newman]. British Journal of Criminology, 14, 203-206.

Bottoms, A. E., & Wiles, P. (1992). Explanations of crime and place. In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe & D. T. Herbert (Eds.), Crime, policing and place: Essays in environmental criminology (pp. 11-35). New York: Routledge.

Bottoms, A. E., & Xanthos, P. (1991). Housing policy and crime in the British public sector. In P.J. Brantingham & P.L. Brantingham (Eds.), Environmental criminology (pp. 203-226). Prospect Heights, Il: Waveland.

Bouza, A. V. (1995, September). Trees and crime prevention. Proceedings of the Seventh National Urban Forest Conference (pp. 31-32). New York, NY: American Forests.

The author reflects on his years in the New York City Police Department, and his efforts to incorporate trees into the streets of Harlem and the Bronx, as well as other efforts of early "community policing" such as transforming empty lots into community gardens, cleaning trash from the Bronx River, as well as other projects. The most interesting aspect of this brief retrospective is how thoroughly the author's personal love of forests affected his service to the people within his watch.

Box, S., Hale, C., & Andrews, G. (1988). Explaining fear of crime. British Journal of Criminology, 28, 340-356.

Braga, A. A. (1997, October). Solving violent crime problems: An evaluation of the Jersey City Police Department’s pilot program to control violent places. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Science, 58, 1452-A.

Braga, A. A., & Bond, B. J. (2008). Policing crime and disorder hot spots: A randomized controlled trial. Criminology, 46(3), 577-607.

Brams, G., Ataov, A., Courson, W., Imeokparia, T., Melsheimer, W., Nasar, J. L., & Nix, R. (1993). A community safety guide for the City of Columbus. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, City & Regional Planning 851, Precinct Planning.

Brantingham, P. J. & Brantingham, P. L. (1981, revised 1991). Environmental Criminology. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, Il.

            The first book in which the authors launch the term “environmental criminology” theme. This anthology includes a dozen other geography of crime scholars. The main premise is that four elements are required for crime to happen: offender, law, target and place. This book is primarily about the latter element – place – hense the focus on geography of crime. There is some coverage of defensible space, CPTED, and policing practices, however the rest remains place-based, measurement-focused, and oriented to land uses and crime opportunity structure.

Brantingham, P. J. (1994). Environmental criminology: Application and practice. In G. Saville (Ed.), Crime Problems, Community Solutions: Environmental Criminology as a Developing Prevention Strategy. Port Moody, BC: AAG Inc. Publications.

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1975). Residential burglary and urban form. Urban Studies, 12(3), 273-284.

Brantingham, Paul & Brantingham, Pat. (1984). Patterns in Crime. MacMillan Publishing Company, New York, NY.

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1977). Housing patterns and burglary in a medium-sized American city. In J. Scott & S. Dinitz (Eds.), Criminal justice planning (pp. 63-74). New York: Praeger.

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1978). A theoretical model of crime site selection. In M. D. Kohn & R. L. Aders (Eds.), Crime, law and sanctions: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 105-118). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1981). Notes on the geometry of crime. In P.J. Brantingham & P.L. Brantingham (Eds.), Environmental criminology (pp. 27-54). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1984). Burglar mobility and crime prevention planning. In R. Clarke & T. Hope (Eds.), Coping with burglary (pp. 77-95). Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.

Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1998). Environmental criminology: From theory to urban planning practice. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 7(1), 31-60.

Brantingham, P. J., Brantingham, P. L., & Butcher, D. (1986). Perceived and actual crime risks. In P. Figlio, S. Hakim & G. Rengert (Eds.), Metropolitan crime patterns (pp. 139-160). New York: Criminal Justice Press.

Brantingham, P. J., Brantingham, P. L., & Molumby, T. (1977). Perceptions of crime in a dreadful enclosure. Ohio Journal of Science, 77, 256-261.

Brantingham, P. J, Brantingham, P. L., & Wong, P. (1990). Malls and crime: A first look. Security Journal, 1, 175-181.

Brantingham, P. J. Brantingham, P. L., & Wong, P. (1991). How public transit feeds private crime: Notes on the Vancouver Skytrain experience. Security Journal, 2, 91-95.

Brantingham, P. J., Dyreson, D. A., & Brantingham, P. L. (1976). Crime seen through a cone of resolution. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 261-273.

Brantingham, P. L. (1981). Mobility, notoriety and crime: A study in the crime patterns of urban nodal points. Journal of Environmental Systems, 11, 89.

Brantingham, P. L. (1989). Crime prevention: The North American experience. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The geography of crime. New York: Routledge.

            In this thorough and insightful chapter the author chronicles the conception, conceptual models of, and changes to crime prevention on this continent. In calling for further theoretical and applied research, she concludes that of the two levels at which prevention is proceeding-standardized programmes versus those specific to a socio-geographic environment-"...standardized programming is unlikely to work..." thus more investigation is needed in the latter area.

Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1980). Crime, occupation, and economic specialization: A consideration of inter-metropolitan patterns. In D. Georges-Abeyie & K. Harries (Eds.), Crime: A spatial perspective. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1993). Nodes, paths, and edges: Considerations on the complexity of crime and the physical environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 53-28.

This paper is extremely useful for the reader wishing an understanding of the past two decades of research on the relationship between crime and the physical environment. Over 200 works are cited in the process of discussing the field's progress and status. The authors utilize a theoretical framework to describe the range of studies conducted on the subject. This includes: 1) the complex etiology of crime; 2) the crime patterns of individuals, with particular attention to how the physical environment influences their behavior; 3) aggregate crime patterns, with particular attention to how the physical environment influences them. Also introduced are the concepts of nodes, paths, edges and an 'environmental backcloth'. The authors close with a discussion of general directions research should take from this point. They note the uniquely well developed understanding of burglary and suggest that research in other areas is needed to bring them up to similar levels. In particular they bring up the need for investigation of cognitive mappings pointing out that "the cognitive physical and spatial environment does not exist independently of the cognitive, social, cultural, economic, legal and temporal environment."

Brassard, A. (2003). Integrating the planning process and second-generation CPTED. The CPTED Journal, 2(1), 46-53.

Brigham, D. (2002). Green Guardians: Can Plants Enhance Security? Landscape Architecture,  92(11), 30-32.

This article provides an overview of plants for various climates that may deter intruders.  It suggests that many residents object to the use of thorny plants, however, so their application must be site-specific.  The author advises the use of such plants in conjunction with other barriers, such as fences, to make them more effective.

Brill & Associates. (1976). Victimization, fear of crime, and altered behavior: A profile of the crime problems in William Nickerson Jr. Gardens, Los Angeles, CA. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

This report is one of a series on 'Victimization, Fear of Crime, and Altered Behavior' in public housing projects. The reports aim at gathering statistical information to be used for comprehensive security plans at the projects. One section deals with building design and location of crimes committed.*

Brill, W. H. (1972). Security in public housing: A synergistic approach in deterrence of crime in and around residences. Papers presented at the Fourth National Symposium on Law Enforcement Science and Technology. College Park, MD: University of Maryland.

Brooks, J. (1974). The fear of crime in the United States. Crime and Delinquency, 20, 241-244.

Brower, S. (1980). Territory in urban settings. In I. Altman et al. (Eds.), Human Behavior in the Environment: Advances in Theory and Research, Vol. 4. New York: Plenum.

Brower, S., Dockett, K., & Taylor, R. B. (1983). Residents' perceptions of territorial features and perceived local threat. Environment and Behavior, 15, 419-437.

Responses to varying images of defensible space features and territorial signs were measured utilizing line drawings with variations in key features. "Results supported the following hypotheses: (1) that the presence of real barriers and plantings are interpreted as a deterrent to intrusion and an indication of stronger occupant territorial attitudes, and (2) that as local perceived threat increases, territorial displays are viewed as less effective deterrents to intrusion.

Brown, B. B. (1983). Territoriality, street form, and residential burglary: Social and environmental analyses (Doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 357B.

Brown, B. B. (1985). Residential territories: Cues to burglary vulnerability. Journal of Architecture and Planning Research, 2, 231-243.

This paper uses "Newman's work on defensible space and Altman's work on territoriality to formulate a hypothesis that certain design elements enhance or reflect residential territoriality and thereby influence burglar's target selections. Specifically, evidence on the links from real and symbolic barriers, traces, and detectability features to burglary vulnerability and residential territoriality are reviewed." The review of relevant literature is effective and useful.

Brown, B. B. (1987). Territoriality. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology, 3 (pp. 505-531).  Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Brown, B. B. (1995). CCTV in town centres: Three case studies (Police Research Group Crime Detection and Prevention Series Paper 68). London: HMSO.

Brown, B. B., & Altman, I. (1981). Territoriality and residential crime: A conceptual framework. In P. Brantingham & P. Brantingham (Eds.), Environmental criminology (pp. 55-76). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Brown, B. B., & Altman, I. (1983). Territoriality, defensible space and residential burglary: An environmental analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, 203-220.

With this study the focus of burglary prevention was heading towards use of cues. It was developing territoriality theories to great detail. The weaknesses the authors experienced, however, appear to have led to studies employing burglars. In that way researchers were able to overcome much of the guesswork that was otherwise necessary to determine decision making by criminals.

Brown, B. B., & Bentley, D. L. (1993). Residential burglars judge risk: The role of territoriality. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 51-61.

Brown, M. A. (1982). Modeling the spatial distribution of suburban crime. Economic Geography, 58(3), 247-261.

Brunson, L. 1999. Resident appropriation of defensible space in public housing: Implications for safety and community. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana.

Building Research Establishment. (November 1993). Domestic burglaries: The burglar’s view (IP 19/93). Watford: Pascoe , T.

Building Research Establishment. (November 1993b). Domestic burglaries: The police view (IP 20/93). Watford: Pascoe , T.

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1988). Criminal victimization in the United States, 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1988b). Criminal victimization in the United States,1987. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1992). Criminal victimization in the United States, 1992. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Burgess, J. (1996). Focusing on fear: The use of focus groups in a project for the Community Forest Unit, Countryside Commission. Area, 28(2), 130-135

Burgess, J. (unknown). Perceptions of risk in recreational woodlands in the urban fringe. London, UK: Countryside Commission.

The extensive work examines recreation users' perceptions of risk in "well-wooded landscapes on the fringes of towns and cities" in the United Kingdom. It evolved out of an effort to increase and broaden the patronage of these settings. As a potential deterrent to usage, perceptions of risk were examined from a number of perspectives, including: kinds of perceived risks, extent to which perceptions of risk inhibit use, and strategies recommended for reducing perceptions of risk. Also included is a thorough review of existing literature. Qualitative methods (participant observation and focus groups) were employed in an attempt to improve on the shortcomings of other methods, especially rating of photographs. Data collection was completed between January and May of 1993, at two urban fringe sites. Noteworthy findings include those concerning "enclosure", "entrapment", and isolation. Addressed are specific impacts of these factors on patrons' perceptions of risk and their use of woodlands. Gender differences are addressed, as are recommendations relevant to environmental designers and resource managers.

Burgess, J., Harrison, C. M., & Limb, M. (1988). People, parks and the urban green: A study of popular meanings and values for open spaces in the city. Urban Studies, 25, 455-473.

Burrows, J. (1980). Closed circuit television and crime on the London underground. In. R.V.G. Clarke & P. Mayhew (Eds.). Designing Out Crime. London: HMSO.

Burrows, J., & Fleming, R. (1986). The case for lighting as a means of preventing crime. (Home Office Research Bulletin. No. 22).  London: HMSO.

Bursik, R. J. (1982). Urban dynamics and ecological studies of delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 88, 24-42.

Bursik, R. J. (1984). Ecological stability and the dynamics of delinquency. In A. J. Reiss, & M. Tonry (Eds.), Communities and Crime (pp. 35-66). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Bursik, R. (1999). The informal control of crime through neighborhood networks. Sociological Focus, 32(1), 85-97.

Bynum, T. S, & Purri, D. M. (1984). Crime and architectural style: An examination of the environmental design hypothesis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 11, 179-196.

Historically, social scientists have argued that human behavior is, to a large degree, a response to environmental conditions. Recently, a group of criminologists posited a direct relationship between certain environmental structures and reported crime rates. Studies exploring this area have pointed to the association between crime rates and high rise residences as support for their position....Using victimization techniques, the experiences of residents of several high and low rise structures in a traditionally low crime area such as the college campus were investigated.....Although causality can not be inferred from the findings, a positive association was observed between high rise areas and property crime rates.

Byrne, J., & Sampson, R. (Eds.). (1962). The social ecology of crime. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Calhoun, J. B. (1962). Population density and social pathology. Scientific American, 206.

Campbell, F., Hendee, J., & Clarke, R. (1979). Law and order in public parks. Parks and Recreation, 6, 35-36.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (1984). Crime prevention through environmental design in multiple family housing, Richmond, B.C. Ottawa: CMHC.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (1989). A synthesis of international literature on urban safety and crime prevention in residential environments: Interim report and bibliography. Ottawa, CMHC.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (1989b). Overview of CMHC activities related to urban safety and crime prevention. European and North American Conference on Urban Safety and Crime Prevention. Ottawa: CMHC.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (1996).The theory and practice of crime prevention through environmental design: A literature review. Ottawa: CMHC.

Canter, D., & Larkin, P. (1993). The environmental range of serial rapists. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 63-69.

            This article at first seems more appropriate for aiding in the solving of crimes, however the application to deterrence is apparent. The authors, after studying 45 sexual offenders' spatial activity, found support for the 'domocentricity' theory, as well as the Marauder and Circle-and-Range hypotheses, while the Commuter model found no support. This suggests that offenders range out from a central point; their homes. This concentration of their offenses seems to offer support for the 'hot spot' theory. If offenders tend to reside in patterns other than purely random manners, then the possibility of non-random offense patterns would mean overall crime rates would be greater in and around their spatial range.

Capone, D. L., & Nichols, W. W. (1975). Crime and distance: An analysis of offender behavior in space. Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers, 7 (pp. 45-49).

Capone, D. L., & Nichols, W. W. (1976). Urban structure and criminal mobility. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 199-213.

Carpenter, C., Glassner, B., Johnson, B. D., & Loughlin, J. (1988). Kids, drugs, and crime. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Carr, P. (1998). Keeping up appearances: Informal social control in a white working class neighborhood in Chicago, Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 59(5), 1781-A.

Carroll, J. (1978). A psychological approach to deterrence: The evaluation of crime opportunities.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(12), 1512-20.

Carroll, J. (1982). Committing a crime: The offender's decision. In V. Konecni & E. Ebbesen (Eds.), The criminal justice system: A social-psychological analysis. New York: Freeman.

Carroll, L., & Jackson, P. I. (1983). Inequality, opportunity, and crime rates in central cities. Criminology, 21, 178-94.

Carter, R. L., & Hill, K. Q. (1976). Criminal’s image of the city and urban crime patterns. Social Science Quarterly, 57(3), 597-607.

Carter, R. L., & Hill, K. Q. (1979). The criminal's image of the city. New York, NY: Pergamon Press, Inc.

Carter, R. L., & Hill, K. Q. (1980). Area-images and behavior: An alternative perspective for understanding urban crime. In D. Georges-Abeyie & K. Harries (Eds.), Crime: A Spatial Perspective (pp. 193-204). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Carter, S. P., & Carter, S. L. (1993). Planning for Prevention: Sarasota, Florida’s Approach to Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Programs and Research in Criminal Justice. Tallahassee, FL.

Carter, S. P., & Carter, S. L. (1994). Crime prevention through environmental design in Sarasota, Florida. Planning Commissioners Journal, 16.

Carter, S. P., & Carter, S. L. (2001). Planning safer schools. American School & University, 73(12), 168.

Carter, S.P., Carter S.L., & Dannenberg A.L. (2003). Zoning Out Crime and Improving Community Health in Sarasota, Florida: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9) 1441-1446.

Carter, S.P. (2002). Community CPTED, The CPTED Journal, 1(1). Calgary, Canada.

Carter, S.P. (2001) Surrounded by Safety: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Handbook for Youth. Youth Crime Watch of America, Miami, FL.

Casteel, C, & Peek-Asa, C. (2000). Effectiveness of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) in reducing robberies, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18(4S).

Casteel, C., Peek-Asa, C., & Kraus, J. F. (2000). Evaluation of a crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) intervention in reducing violece in liquor stores. American Journal of Epidemiology, 151(11), 99-115.

Catallo, R. (1994). Lessons from success stories. Toronto, OT: Safe City Committee, Planning and Development Department.

Catton, W. R. (1988). [Review of human ecology : A theoretical essay, by A. H. Hawley]. Deviant Behavior, 9(4).

Chaiken, J., & Chaiken, M. (1982). Varieties of criminal behavior. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Challinger, D. (1997). Will crime prevention ever be a business priority? In M. Felson & R.V. Clarke (Eds.), From Business and Crime Prevention (pp. 35-55). Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Chapin, D. (1991, July). Making green spaces safer places: Experiences in New York City. Landscape Architectural Review, 16- 18.

Charland, J. (1988). Women's personal security, fear of crime, and the urban environment. (Unpublished MA thesis). Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Chatterton, M. R., & Frenz, S. J. (1994). Closed circuit television: its role in reducing burglaries and the fear of crime in sheltered accommodation for the elderly. Security Journal, 5(3), 133-9.

Chenoweth, R. E. (1978). The effects of territorial markings on residents of two multi-family housing developments: A partial test of Newman's theory of defensible space (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 5088. (University Microfilms No. GAX78-03955).

Chester, C. R. (1976). Perceived relative deprivation as a cause of property crime. Crime and

            Delinquency, 22(1), 17-30.

Chimbos, P. (1973). A study of breaking and entering offenses in Northern City, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Corrections, 15, 316-325.

Christensen, H. H., & Clark, R. N. (1978). Understanding and controlling vandalism and other rule violations in urban recreation areas. Proceedings of the National Urban Forest Conference, 1. Washington, DC.

Christensen, H. H., Johnson, D. R., & Brooks, M. H. (1992). Vandalism: Research, prevention and social policy (General Technical Report PNW-GTR-293). Portland, OR: U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Chubb, M., & Westover, T. (1981). Anti-social behavior: Typology, messages and implications for recreation resource managers. Land use allocation. St. Paul, MN: USDA Forest Service, North Central Experiment Station.

Cimler, E., & Beach, L. (1981). Factors involved in juveniles' decisions about crime. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 8, 275-286.

Cisneros, H. G. (1995). Defensible space: Deterring crime and building community. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing.

Citizens Task Force. (March, 1990). Central Park: The heart of the city. New York: Citizens Task Force on the Use and Security of Central Park.

This report is a compilation of a research study conducted to improve understanding of use and security in New York's Central Park. Notable findings include: the northern end of the park is perceived to be the most unsafe; crime within the park is noticeably lower than in surrounding neighborhoods; there are relatively few police assigned to the expanse of the Park; crime in the Park is perceived to be worse than it is; community policing has been highly effective (including assigning radios to vendors, and Interwatch radios to runners). Recommendations are broad and specific, yet pertain primarily to policing, user awareness and technologically oriented means for crime detection, with some crime deterrence. Although terrain and vegetation are mentioned as significant influences on perceptions of safety and actual crime, recommendations are few for dealing with these elements. Most notably, undergrowth and dead trees were cited for removal, and sight lines were recommended to be kept clear.

Clark, D. (1998). Healthy Cities: A model for community improvement. Public Management, 80(11), 4-8.

Clarke, Ronald V. (2008). Improving Street Lighting to Reduce Crime in Residential Areas. Problem-Oriented Policing Guides for Police, Response Guides Series, Number 8. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Washington, DC.

Clarke, A., & Lewis, M. (1982). Fear of crime among the elderly. British Journal of Criminology, 22, 49-62.

Clarke, R. V. (1980). Situational crime prevention: Theory and practice. British Journal of Criminology, 20(2), 136-147.

Clarke, R. V. (1980b). Situational crime prevention: Its theory basis and practical scope. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research, (pp. 4). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Clarke, R. V. (1980c). Tackling vandalism (Home Office Research Study No.47). London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office.

Clarke, R. V. (1989). Theoretical background to crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) and situational prevention. In S. Geason & P. Wilson (Eds.), Designing Out Crime: The Conference Papers. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Clarke, R. V. (Ed.). (1991). Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston.

Clarke, R. V. (1995). Displacement: An old problem in new perspective. In G.Saville (Ed.), Crime Problems, Community Solutions: Environmental Criminology as a Developing Prevention Strategy. Port Moody, BC: AAG Inc. Publications.

Clarke, R. V. (1996). Preventing Mass Transit Crime. Crime Prevention Studies Volume 6, Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, NY.

Clarke, R. V. (2002). Closing streets and alleys to reduce crime: Should you go down this road? (Problem-oriented Guides for Police Response Guide Series No. 2). US Department of Justice Offie of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Clarke, R. V., Cody, R. P., & Natarajan, M. (1994). Subway slugs: tracking displacement on the London Underground.  British Journal of Criminology, 34(2), 122-138.

Clarke, R. V., & Cornish, D. (1985). Modeling offenders' decisions: A framework for research and policy. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research, 6. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Clarke, R. V., & Felson, M. (1993). Routine activity and rational choice. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

Clarke, R. V., Field, S., & McGrath, G. (1991). Target hardening of banks in Australia and displacement of robberies. Security Journal, 2, 84-90.

Clarke, R. V., & Homel, R. (1997). A revised classification of situational crime prevention techniques. In Lab, S. (Ed.), Crime Prevention at the Crossroads (pp. 17-30). Cincinnati, OH: Criminal Justice Press.

Clarke, R.V., & Hope, T. (1984). Coping with burglary. Boston, MA: Kluwger-Nijnoff.

Clarke, R.V., & Mayhew, P. (Eds.). (1980). Designing out crime. London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office. 

Clarke, R. V., & Mayhew, P. (1989). Crime as opportunity : A note on domestic gas suicide in Britain and the Netherlands. The British Journal of Criminology, 29(1), 35-46.

Clarke, R. V., & Mayhew, P. (1992). Parking patterns and car theft risks: Policy-relevant findings from the British Crime Survey. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies: Vol. 3 (pp. 91-107). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

A series of excellent articles on reducing crime and vandalism by improving design and management of the environment in order to reduce opportunities for offending. This is a 'situational' approach to crime prevention and includes discussions of lock technology, surveillance, siting, and publicity campaigns

Clarke, R. V., & Weisburd, D. (1994). Diffusion of crime control benefits: observations on the reverse of displacement. In Clarke, R. (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 2, Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, NY.

Claster, D. (1967). Comparison of risk perception between delinquents and non-delinquents. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 58, 80-86.

Cleveland, G., & Saville, G. (1998). 2nd Generation CPTED: An antidote to the social Y2K virus of urban design. Paper presented at the 3rd Annual International CPTED Conference. Washington, DC, December.

Cleveland, G., & Saville, G. (2003). An Introduction to 2nd Generation CPTED: Part 1. CPTED Perspectives, 6(2), 4-8.

Cleveland, G., & Saville, G. (2003b). An introduction to 2nd generation CPTED: Part 2. CPTED Perspectives, 6(2), 7-9.

Clontz, K. (1995). Residential and commercial burglaries: An empirical test of crime prevention through environmental design. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences,56(4), 1536-A.

Cloward, R. A., & Ohlin, L. E. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. New York, NY: Free Press.

Coburn, G. (1988). Patterns of homicide in Vancouver, 1980-1986. (Unpublished MA thesis). Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.

Coelho, E. C. (1988). Violent urban crime. Dados: Revista de Ciencias Sociais, 31(2).

Cohen, L., & Cantor, D. (1981). Residential burglary in the United States: Lifestyle and demographic factors associated with the probability of victimization. Journal of Residential Crime and Delinquency, 18, 113-127.

Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588-608.

Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1981). Modelling crime trends: A criminal opportunity perspective. Journal of Residential Crime and Delinquency, 18, 138-64.

Coleman, A. (1985). Utopia on trial. London: Shipman.

Coleman, A. (1986). Design improvement: Utopia goes on trial. Town and Country Planning, 55(5), 138.

Colquhoun, I. (2004). Design out crime: Creating safe and sustainable communities. Oxford, England: Elsevier Architectural Press.

Conklin, J. E. (1971). Dimensions of community response to the crime problem. Social Problems, 18, 373-385.

Conklin, J. E. (1975). The impact of crime. New York: Macmillan.

Conklin, J. E., & Bittner, E. (1973). Burglary in a suburb. Criminology, 11(2), 206-232.

Conners, E. F. (1976) Public safety in park and recreation settings. Parks and Recreation, 2 (1), 20-21, 55-56.

Conway, K. L. (1980). Public perceptions of, and attitudes toward, crime in the parks of a major metropolitan area. (Unpublished Masters' thesis), Texas A&M University, College Station.

Cook, P. (1980). Research in criminal deterrence: Laying the groundwork for the second decade. In N. Morris & M. Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research, 2. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Cook, P. (1986). The demand and supply of criminal opportunities. In N. Morris & M. Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research, 7. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Cooper-Marcus, C., & Sarkissian, W. (1986). Housing as if people mattered: Site guidelines for medium-density family housing. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

This highly readable book covers a variety of user groups and site design issues in housing developments. Chapter 13, Security and Vandalism, deals exclusively with crime in such developments, providing a rare variety of useful sketches and photographs to illustrate the text. Design guidelines extensively reference past research on the crime and housing and themselves offer suggestions which appear to the reader as simple yet valuable. Included are major subject headings are Penetrability, Territoriality, Opportunities for Surveillance, Ambiguity, Resident Conflicts, Vandalism, and Management.

Cornish, D. B. (1994). Crimes as scripts. D. Zahm & P. Cromwell (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Seminar on Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis (pp. 30-45). Coral Gables, FL: Florida Statistical Analysis Center, Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute.

Cornish, D. B. (1994b). The procedural analysis of offending and its relevance for situational prevention. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies: Vol. 3 (pp. 91-107). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). Situational prevention, displacement of crime and rational choice theory. In K. Heal & G. Laycock (Eds.), Situational Crime Prevention: From Theory into Practice. London: HMSO.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (Eds.). (1986b). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspective on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1987). Understanding crime displacement: An application of rational choice theory. Criminology, 25, 933-947.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1990). Crime specialization, crime displacement and rational choice theory. In H. Wegener, F. Losel, & J. Haisch (Eds.). Criminal Behavior and the Justice System: Psychological Perspectives. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Corrado, R., Roesch, W., Glackman, J. E., & Leger, G. (1980). Lifestyle and personal victimization: A test of the model with Canadian data. Journal of Criminal Justice, 3,129-139.

Corsi, T. M., & Harvey, M. E. (1975). The socio-economic determinants of crime in the city of Cleveland. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 66, 316.

Costanzo, C.M., Halperin, W., & Gale, N. (1986). Criminal mobility and the directional component in journeys to crime.  In R. Figlio, S. Hakim and G. Rengert (Eds.), Metropolitan Crime Patterns (pp. 73-96). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Courtenay, R. (2002). Security in the Public Realm.  Landscape Architecture, 92(11), 34-36.

This article describes efforts of the National Capitol Planning Commission and other federal agencies in Washington D.C. to improve safety after September 11, 2001.  It emphasizes the balance between security and good design.  The article suggests that vehicular standoff perimeters are the most conspicuous aspect of security, but limited urban space creates an environment where design review, aesthetics, and a constructive decision-making process become increasingly important. 

Covington, J., & Taylor, R. B. (1989). Gentrification and crime: Robbery and larceny changes in appreciating Balitimore neighborhood.  Urban Affairs Quarterly, 25, 142-172.

Covington, J., & Taylor, R. B. (1990). Neighborhood structure, neighborhood change, and fear of crime (Working Paper 19). Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University, Center for Urban Policy Research.

Cozens, P. M. (2007). Planning, crime and urban sustainability. Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 102, 187-196.

Cozens, P. M. (2008) Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Western Australia: Planning for sustainable urban futures. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 3(3), 272-292.

Cozens, P. M. (2008b). New Urbanism, crime and the suburbs: A review of the evidence. Urban Theory and Practice, 26(3), 1-16.

Cozens, P. M. (2001). Plan for safe stations. Property Management, 19(4), 218-221.

Cozens, P. M. (2002). Sustainable urban development and crime prevention for the British City: Towards an effective urban environmentalism for the 21st Century. Cities, 19(2), 129-127.

Cozens, P. M. (2002). Sustainable urban development and crime prevention through environmental design for the British City in 2002: Towards an effective urban environmentalism for the 21st Century Cities. The International Journal of Urban Policy and Planning, 19(2), 129-137.

Cousins, L. (1998). Ethnographic windows on urban disorders. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 27(2), 278-284.

Cozens, Paul & Terrence Love. (2009). Manipulating permeability as a process for controlling crime: Balancing security and sustainability in local contexts. Built Environment. 35(3), 346-365.

Cozens, P. M., Hillier D., & Prescott, G. (1999). Crime & the design of new build housing. Town & Country Planning, 63(7), 231-233.

Cozens, P. M., Hillier D., & Prescott, G. (2000). A tale of two cities? Town and Country Planning, 69(3), 92-94.

Cozens, P. M., Hillier, D., & Prescott, G. (2001). Crime and the design of residential property: Exploring the perceptions of planning professionals, burglars and other users. Property Management, 19(4), 222-248.

Cozens, P. M., Hillier, D., & Prescott, G. (2001b). Crime and the design of residential property: Exploring the theoretical background. Property Management, 19(2), 136.

Cozens, P. M., Hillier D., & Prescott, G. (2001c). Defensible space: Police and burglars evaluate urban residential design. Security Journal, 14(2), 43-62.

Cozens, P. M., Hillier, D., & Prescott, G. (1999). The sustainable & the criminal: The case of new build housing projects in Britain. Property Management, 17(3), 252 -261.

Cozens, P. M., Neale, R. H., Whitaker, J., Hillier, D., & Graham, M. (2003). A critical review of street lighting, crime and the fear of crime in the British City. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 5(2), 7-24.

Cozens, P. M., Pascoe, T., & Hillier, D. (2004). The policy and practice of secured by design (SBD). Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 6(1), 13-29.

Cozens P. M., Saville, G., & Hillier, B. (2005) Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED): A review and modern bibliography. Journal of Property Management, 23(5), pp. 328-356.

Craglia, M., Haining, R., & Signoretta, P. (2001). Modeling high-intensity crime areas in English cities. Urban Studies, 38(11) 1921.

Cranz, G. (1980). Women in urban parks. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 5, 579-595.

Crawford, A. (1994). Social values and managerial goals: Police and probation officers’ experiences and views of inter-agency co-operation. Policing and Society, 4(4), 323-339.

Creechan, J., Hartnagel, T., & Silverman, R. (1978). Attitudes toward crime and law enforcement. Unpublished manuscript.

Crewe, K. 2001. Linear parks and urban neighbourhoods: A study of the crime impact of the Boston South-West Corridor. Journal of Urban Design, 6(3), 245-264.

Crittenden, I. (1986). Break and enter offender in South Australia. In S.K. Mukherjee & L. Jorgensen (Eds.), Burglary: A Social Reality - Proceedings of Seminar on Burglary. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Cromwell, P. (1987). Ecological analysis of convenience store robbery. The 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology.

Cromwell, P. (1988). The decision-making process of residential burglars. The 40th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology.

Cromwell, P., Olson, J. N., & Avary, D. (1990). Residential burglary: An ethnographic analysis. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

Cromwell, P., Olson, J. N., & Avary, D. (1991). Breaking and entering: An ethnographic analysis of burglary. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Crowe, T. D. (1988). An ounce of prevention: A new role for law enforcement. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 57, 18-24.

Written by then director of the National Crime Prevention Institute, this audiences-specific article gives a quick introduction to the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) concept. It discusses the principles of CPTED and explains via easily legible plan drawings examples of good and bad design.

Crowe, T. D. (1990, Fall). Designing safer schools. School Safety, 9-13.

Crowe, T. D. (1991). Crime prevention through environmental design. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Crutchfield, R., Geerken, M., & Gove, W. (1982). Crime rate and social integration: The impact of metropolitan mobility. Criminology-An Interdisciplinary Journal, 20, 3-4.

Cunnen, J. M. L. (1990). The light solution to crime: Lighting makes life secure. Lighting Design and Application, 20, 16-17A.

Cunningham, W. C., Strauchs, J. J., & Van Meter, C. W. (1991). Private security: Patterns and trends (Research in Brief). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice

Dalgard, O. S., & Kringlen, E. (1976). A Norwegian twin study of criminality. British Journal of Criminology, 16(3), 213-232.

Dannenberg, A., Jackson, R., Frumkin, H., Schieber, R., Pratt, M., Kochtitzky, C., & Tilson, H. (2003). The impact of community design and land-use choices on public health: A scientific research agenda. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1500-1508.

Davey, C., Caroline, L., Wootton, A., Cooper, R., & Press, M. (2005) Design against crime: Extending the reach of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Security Journal, 18, 39–51.

Davidson, R. N. (1976). Crime and the urban environment. From the proceedings of the British Association of Geographers.

Davidson, R. N. (1977). Spatial bias in court sentencing. Paper presented to Urban Studies Group, Institute of British Geographers.

Davidson, R. N. (1980). Environment and ideology: Alternative perspectives on urban crime rates. In P. Porer (Ed.), Futures in Human Geography.  Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Geographical Society.

Davidson, R. N. (1980b). Patterns of residential burglary in Christchurch. New Zealand Geographer, 36(2), 73-78.

Davidson, R. N. (1981). Crime and environment. London: Croom Helm.

This work offers "no blockbusting theory" on crime and the environment, but it does deal with spatial elements of crime patterns. The book repeatedly examines the theme of "spatial inequalities in patterns." The author's primary emphasis is upon offenses against persons and their property.

Davidson, R. N. (1982). Micro-environments of violence: Situational factors in violent crime. Paper presented at IBG Crime and Space Conference, London.

Davidson, R. N. (1986). Micro-environments of assault: The role of location in violent injury. In D. Herbert, D. Evans, R. Davidson, S. Smith, & R. Mawby (Eds.), The geography of crime (Occasional Paper 7, pp. 24-32). UK: North Staffordshire Polytechnic, Department of Geography and Recreation Studies.

Davidson, R. N., & Francis, M. K. (1973). Kingston-Upon-Hull and Haltemprice: Social area analysis, Part 11 Commentary (Miscellaneous Series No. 15). Kingston Upon Hull: University of Hull Department of Geography.

Davidson, R. N., & Locke, T. (1992). Local area profiles of crime: Neighborhood crime patterns in context. In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe and D. T. Herbert (Eds.), Crime, policing and place: Essays in environmental criminology (pp. 60-72). New York: Routledge.

Day, K. (1995, March). Making the solution fit the crime. Sexual assault prevention and women's use of the college campus. Paper presented at EDRA 26, Boston, MA.

Decker, S. H., Wright, R., & Logie, R. H. (1993). Perceptual deterrence among active residential burglars: A research note. Criminology, 31, 135-147.

The authors, two of whom are well known for their work with active and former offenders, here brief the reader on their findings comparing responses by active criminals and a non-criminal control group. The willingness to offend findings are important and not altogether expected, but most importantly they point out that "when studying perceptual deterrence in relation to serious offenses such as residential burglary, it is important to include real criminals."

DeFrances, C. J., & Titus, R. M. (1993). Urban planning and residential burglary outcomes. In J. L. Nasar (Ed.), Landscape and urban planning: Special issue on urban design research, 26, 179-191.

DeFronzo, J. (1984). Climate and crime: Tests of an FBI assumption. Environment and Behavior, 16(2), 185-210.

DeKeseredy, W. S., Shahid, A., Renzetti, C., & Schwartz, M. D. (2004). Reducing private violence against women in public housing: Can second-generation CPTED make a difference? The CPTED Journal, 3(1), 27-37.

DeKeseredy, W.S., Donnermeyer, J.F., & Schwartz, M.D. (2009). Toward a gendered second generation CPTED for preventing woman abuse in rural communities. Security Journal, 22(3), 178-189.

DeKesseredy, W., Shahid, A., Schwartz, M., & Tomaszewski, A. (2003). Under siege: Poverty and crime in a public housing community. Lanham MD: Lexington Books.

Del Carmen, A. (1997). An analysis of the theoretical, empirical, and policy development of crime prevention through environmental design in the United States during the Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries employing the conceptual orientation of interactive systems. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 58 (3), 1101-A.

DeLeon-Granados, W. (1998). Travels through crime and place: On the trail of community-building as crime control. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 58(10), 4075-A.

DesChamps, S., Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1991). The British Columbia transit fare evasion audit: A description of a situational prevention process. Security Journal, 2, 211-218.

Dewberry. E. (2003). Designing out crime: Insights from eco-design. Security Journal, 16, 51-62.

Dickout, D. (2006). A community based approach to creating safer night-life spaces: 2nd Generation CPTED in action. The CPTED Journal, 2(1), 25-32.

Dietrick, B. (1977). The environment and burglary victimization in a metropolitan suburb. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Atlanta, GA.

Ditton, J., Nair, G., Hunter, G., & Phillips, S. (1992). Street lighting and crime: The Strathclyde Twin site study. Glasgow, Scotland: Criminology Research Unit, Glasgow University.

Ditton, J., Nair, G., & Phillips, S. (1993). Crime in the dark: a case study of the relationship between street lighting and crime. In H. Jones (Ed.), Crime and the Urban Environment. Aldershot: Avebury.

Ditton, J., & Short, E. (1998). When open street CCTV appears to reduce crime: does it just get displaced elsewhere? CCTV Today, 5(2), 13-16.

Doerner, W. G. (1975). A regional analysis of homicide rates in the United States. Criminology, 13(1), 90-101.

Donnely, P. (1988). Individual and neighborhood influences on fear of crime. Sociological Focus, 22(1), 69-85.

Donnelly, P., & Kimble, C. (1995). Community organizing against urban crime: An assessment of the relationship between defensible space, community ties and crime. Knoxville, TN: Society for the Study of Social Problems.

Donnelly, P., & Kimble, C. (1997). Community organizing, environmental change, and neighborhood crime. Crime and Delinquency, 43(4), 493-511.

Donovan, G. H., & Prestemon, J. P. (2010). The effect of trees on crime in Portland, Oregon. Environment and Behavior, 43(5).

“The authors estimate the relationship between trees and three crime aggregates (all crime, violent crime, and property crime) and two individual crimes (burglary and vandalism) in Portland, Oregon. During the study period (2005-2007), 431 crimes were reported at the 2,813 single-family homes in our sample. In general, the authors find that trees in the public right of way are associated with lower crime rates. The relationship between crime and trees on a house’s lot is mixed. Smaller, view-obstructing trees are associated with increased crime, whereas larger trees are associated with reduced crime. The authors speculate that trees may reduce crime by signaling to potential criminals that a house is better cared for and, therefore, subject to more effective authority than a comparable house with fewer trees.”

Dowell, C. D. (1973, January). Panic in the parks. Parks and Recreation.

DuBow, F. E., McCabe, E., & Kaplan, G. (1979). Reactions to crime: A critical review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.

Duffala, D. C. (1976). Convenience stores, robbery, and physical environmental features. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 227-246.

Dunlap, E., Johnson, B., Sanabria, H., Holliday, E., Lipsey, V., Barnett, M., Hopkins, W., Sobel, I., Randolph, D., & Chin, K. (1990). Studying crack users and their criminal careers: The scientific and artistic aspects of locating hard-to-reach subjects and interviewing them about sensitive topics. Contemporary Drug Problems, 17, 121-144.

Dunn, C. S. (1974). The analysis of environmental attribute/crime incident characteristic interrelationships. (Doctoral dissertation). State University of New York, Albany.

Dunn, C. S. (1980). Crime area research. In D. E. Georges-Abeyie & K. D. Harries (Eds.), Crime: A spatial perspective. New York: Columbia University Press.

Dunn, C. S. (1980b). Social area structure of suburban crime. In D. E. Georges-Abeyie & K. D. Harries (Eds.), Crime: A spatial perspective (pp. 136-137). New York: Columbia University Press.

Du Plessis, C. (1999). The links between crime prevention and sustainable development. Open House International, 24(1),  33-40.

Dwyer, W. O., & Murrell, D. S. (1985, January). Negligence in visitor security. Parks and Recreation.

Dwyer, W. O., & Murrell, D. S. (1986, February). Future trends in park protection. Parks and Recreation.

Dwyer, W. O., & Murrell, D. S. (1990, February). The ins and outs of park law enforcement. Parks and Recreation.

Dyreson, D. (April 1972). Robbers, cops, and automata: Modelling spatial avoidance behavior. Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Rocky Mountain Social Science Association.

Eck, J. (1983). Solving crimes: The invention of burglary and robbery. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Eck, J. (1997). Preventing crime at places: why places are important. In L.W Sherman, D.C. Gottfredson, D.C Mackenzie, J. Eck, , P. Reuterand, & S.D. Bushway. (Eds.), Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice Research in Brief, US Department of Justice.

Eck, J. (2002). Preventing crime at places. In L. Sherman, D.P. Farrington, B. Welsh, & D. Mackenzie (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention (9241-9294). London: Routledge.

Eck, J., & Spelman, W. (1992). Thefts from vehicles in shipyard parking lots. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

Eck, J., & Wartell, J. (1996). Reducing crime and drug dealing by improving place management: A randomized experiment (Report to the San Diego Police Department). Washington, DC: Crime Control Institute.

Eck, J., & Weisbur, D. (Eds.). (1995). Crime and place: From the Police Executive Research Forum. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Edwards, A. (1973). Sex and area variations in delinquency rates in an English city. British Journal of Criminology, 13(2), 121-137.

Edwards, A. (1986). The prevention of shop theft: An approach through crime analysis. (Crime Prevention Unit. Paper 5). London: Home Office Research and Planning Unit.

Egan, J. (1991, July). Breaking through the myth of public safety. Landscape Architectural Review, 7-10.

Ehrenhard, J. E. (Ed.). (1991). Coping with site looting: Southeastern perspectives: Essays in archeological resource protection. Atlanta, GA: National Park Service, Southeast Region, Interagency Archeological Services Division.

Ekblom, P. (1987). Preventing robberies at sub-post offices: An evaluation of a security initiative (Crime Prevention Unit Paper Number 9). Londong: Home Office.

Ekblom, P. (1988). Preventing post office robberies in London: effects and side effects. Journal of Security Administration, 11(1), 36-43.

Ekblom, P. (2010). Crime Prevention, Security and Community Safety Using the 5Is Framework. Palgrave Macmillan.

Ellin, N. (1997). Shelter from the storm: Defensive urbanism in the United States. American Sociological Association.

Engstad, P. (1971). Perspectives on the ecology of crime: An application and appraisal. (Unpublished MA thesis). University of Alberta, Alberta.

Engstad, P. (1975). Environmental opportunities and the ecology of crime. In R. Silverman & J. Teevan, Jr. (Eds.), Crime in Canadian society (193-211). Toronto: Butterworth.

Ennis, P. (1967). Criminal victimization in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Erez, E. (1979). Situational analysis of crime: Comparison of planned and impulsive offenses. (Doctoral dissertation). London: University Microfilms International.

Erskine, H. (1974). The polls: Fear of violence and crime. Public Opinion Quarterly, 38, 131-148.

Eskridge, C. (1983). Prediction of burglary. Journal of Criminal Justice, 11, 67-76.

Estrella, S. (1988). Stemming crime through environmental design. Security Management, 32, 86-89.

This two-page article serves to introduce readers of this magazine (security managers) to the origination and development of CPTED, and how they may incorporate it into their businesses. While it is neither empirical nor innovative, it does offer a quality, albeit very brief, discussion of the topic.

Evans, D. J. (1980). Geographical perspectives on juvenile delinquency.  Farnborough: Gower.

Evans, D. J. (1987). Burglary within an affluent housing area. Unpublished research note.

Evans, D. J. (1989). Geographical analyses of residential burglary. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The geography of crime. New York: Routledge.

Evans, D. J. (Ed.) (1992). Crime, policing and place: Essays in environmental criminology (pp. 196-216). New York: Routledge.

Evans, D. J., Fyfe, N. R., & Herbert, D. T. (1992). Crime, policing and place: Essays in environmental criminology. New York: Routledge.

Evans, D. J., & Herbert, D. (Eds.). (1989). The geography of crime. London: Routledge.

Evans, D. J., & Oulds, G. (1984). Geographical aspects of the incidence of residential burglary in Newcastle-under-Lyme, UK. TESG, 75, 344-355.

Evans, Graeme. (2009). Accessibility, urban design and the whole journey environment. Build Environment. 35(3), 366-385.

Fabrikant, R. (1979). The distribution of criminal offences in an urban environment: A spatial analysis of criminal spillovers and of juvenile offenders. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 38(1), 31-47.

Falanga, M. (1987). Pre-construction evaluation techniques for reducing environmentally related crime. Design Methods and Theories, 21(4), 717-722.

Farley, J. (1987). Suburbanization and central-city crime rates: New evidence and a reinterpretation. The American Journal of Sociology, 93(3), 688-700.

Farrell, G. (1995). Preventing repeat victimization. In M. Tonry & D. Farrington (Eds.), From Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention (pp. 469-534). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Farrington, D.P., & Welsh, C. (2002). Effects of improved street lighting on crime: A systematic review (Home Office Research Study 251). London: Development and Statistics Directorate, Crown Copyright.

Fattah, E., Sturrock, J., & Rathbone, I. (1978). Studies in ecological criminology, Vol. III. Burnaby: Simon Fraser University.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1980). Crime in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Feeney, F. (1986). Robbers as decision-makers. In D. Cornish & R. V. Clarke (Eds.), The Reasoning Criminal (pp. 53-71). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Feeney, F., & Weir, A. (Eds.). (1973). The prevention and control of robbery: The response of the police and other agencies to robbery, IV. Davis, CA: University of California.

This is the fourth of a four volume series of which this is the most relevant to the topic at hand. The studies contained in this volume seek to explain the criminal justice system's operation regarding robbery. Underlying this purpose was the goal of understanding the system's relevance to the problems of controlling and preventing robbery.

Feeney, F., & Weir, A. (Eds.). (1973b). The prevention and control of robbery: Summary. Davis, CA: University of California.

"This study has primarily been concerned with describing the patterns of robbery in a single American city--Oakland, California--and the response of the criminal justice agencies in that city to the crime. It is an exploratory study designed to produce the kind of detailed, integrated information necessary for serious thinking and planning about the subject....The findings of the study do...bring to light some important things that have been unknown or little understood (pp. 3-4)."

Feins, J., Epstein, J., & Widom, R. (1997). Solving crime problems in residential neighborhoods. Washington, NJ: U.S. Department of Justice.

Feldman, M. (1977). Criminal behavior: A psychological analysis. New York, NY: Wiley.

Felson, M. (1983). The ecology of crime. In S. H. Kadish (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice (pp. 665-670). New York, NY: Free Press-Macmillan.

Felson, M. (1986). Predicting crime potential at any point on the city map. In P. Figlio, S. Hakim, & G. Rengert (Eds.), Metropolitan crime patterns (pp. 139-160). New York: Criminal Justice Press.

Felson, M. (1987). Routine activities and crime prevention in the developing metropolis. Criminology, 25, 911-931.

Not an empirical study, this paper offers a discussion of research on routine activities theory. Specifically, it addresses changes in the urban fabric and how those evolving relationships affect crime. The author focuses on streets and their impact on lifestyles and hence on contact between offenders and the public, referring to these meetings as "systematic accidents". He also introduces the term "sociocirculatory system", a reference to the latter impact of streets and vehicles on society, and especially the lack of regular neighborhood contact and the familiarity with people and place that results. Several excellent examples are given where these changes have occurred. The "facility" is the social structure which he suggests is the outcome. Examples include industrial parks, mini-malls, and so-called smart office buildings. In the long term the author suggests that the switch in urban structure means "the facility would become the main organizational tool for crime prevention (p. 926)." Finally, he offers the designer as one of the most important emerging preventers of crime as the "physical design and kinetic management" of urban landscapes decides more and more how and how often criminal and target meet.

Felson, M. (1996). Preventing retail theft: An application of environmental criminology. Security Journal, 7(1), 71-75.

Felson, M., & Cohen, L. E. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44(4), 588-608.

Felson, M., & Cohen, L. E. (1980). Human ecology and crime: A routine activity approach. Human Ecology, 8, 389-406.

Felson, M., Dickman, D., Glenn, D., Kelly, L., Lambard, G., Maher, L., Nelson-Green, L., Ortega, C., Preiser, T., Rajedran, A., Ross, T., Tous, L., & Veil, J. (1990). Preventing crime at Newark subway Stations. Security Journal, 1(3), 137-142.

Figlio, P., Hakim, S., & Rengert, G. (Eds.). (1986). Metropolitan crime patterns. New York: Criminal Justice Press.

Fisher, B. S. (1991). Neighborhood business proprietors' reactions to crime. Journal of Security Administration, 14(2), 23-54.

Fisher, B. S., & Nasar, J. L. (1991, July). Prospect and refuge: Fear of crime in and the building design characteristics. Paper presented at the Joint ASCP and ASEOP International Conference, Oxford, England.

Fisher, B. S., & Nasar, J. L. (1992). Fear of crime in relation to three exterior site features: Prospect, refuge, and escape. Environment and Behavior, 24, 35-65.

"This article examines fear of crime in relation to exterior site features...The authors propose and test a theoretical model that posits that places that afford offenders refuge, and victims limited prospect and escape, will be seen as unsafe...The findings confirmed that fear of crime was highest in areas with refuge for potential offenders and low prospect and escape for potential victims."

Fisher, B. S., & Nasar, J. L. (1995). Fear spots in relation to microlevel physical cues: Exploring the overlooked. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 32, 214-239.

Fisher, C. S., Baldassare, M., & Ofshe, R. J. (1975). Crowding studies and urban life: A critical review. Journal of the American Planning Association, 41(6), 406.

Fishman, G. (1979). Patterns of victimization and notification. British Journal of Criminology, 19(2), 146-157.

Fitzgerald, R., Wisener, M., & Savoie, J. (2004). Neighbourhood characteristics and the distribution of crime in Winnipeg. (Crime and Justice Research Paper Series: Catalogue 85-561-MIE, no. 4). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Flango, V. E., & Sherbenou, E. L. (1976). Poverty, urbanization, and crime. Criminology, 14(3), 331.

Fleissner, D., & Heinzelmann, F. (1996). Crime prevention through environmental design and community policing. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice Research in Action, US Department of Justice.

Fleming, R., & Burrows, J. (1986). The case for lighting as a means of preventing crime. Home Office Research and Planning Unity Research Bulletin, 22, 14-17.

Fletcher, J. E. (1983). The estimated effect of user fees and controlled visitor access in reducing actual and perceived safety and security problems at Sommerville Lake, Texas. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Department of the Defense, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station.

Fletcher, J. E. (1983b). Assessing the impact of actual and perceived safety and security problems on park use and enjoyment. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 1, 21-36.

Fletcher, J. E. (1984). Effect of controlled access and entrance fees on park visitor safety and security. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 2.

Florida Center for Community Design & Research. (1993). Safe schools design guidelines: Recommendations for a safe & secure environment in Florida's public schools (Project No. 4950-33-10-056-LO). Tampa, FL.

Forgey, B.  (2002). Changing The Guard. Landscape Architecture, 92(11), 80-84.

Forrester, D., Chatterton, M., & Pease, K. (1988). The Kirkholt burglary project, Rochdale. (Home Office Crime Prevention Unit, Paper 13). London: HMSO.

Foster, J. (1995). Informal social control and community crime prevention. British Journal of Criminology, 35(4), 563-583.

Fowler, F., & Mangione, T. (1979). Reducing residential crime and fear: The Hartford neighborhood prevention program. Boston, MA: Center for Survey Research, The University of Massachusetts, Boston, the Joint Center for Urban Studies of MIT and Harvard University, and Hartford Institute of Criminal and Social Justice.

Fowler, F., & Mangione, T. (1982). Neighborhood crime, fear, and social control: A second look at the Hartford Program. Washington, DC: Center for Survey Research.

Fowler, F., & Mangione, T. (1986). A three-pronged effort to reduce crime and fear of crime: The Hartford experiment. In D. Rosenbaum (Ed.), Community crime prevention: Does it work?. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Francis, M. (1984). Some different meanings attached to a city park and community gardens. Landscape Journal, 6(2), 101-112.

Freedman, J. L. (1972). Population density, juvenile delinquency and mental illness in New York City. In S.M. Mazie (Ed.), Commission on Population Growth and the American Future (Vol. 5). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Freedman, J. L. (1975). Crowding and behavior. San Francisco: Freeman.

Furstenberg, F. (1971). Public reaction to crime in the streets. The American Scholar, 40, 601-610.

Fyfe, J. J. (1980). Geographic correlates of police shooting: A micro-analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 17.

Gabor, T. (1981). The crime displacement hypothesis: An empirical examination. Crime and Delinquency, 27(3), 390-404.

Gabor, T. (1990). Crime displacement and situational prevention: Toward the development of some principles. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 32, 41-74.

Gabor, T., Baril, M., Cusson, M., Elie, D., LeBlanc, M., & Normandeau, A. (1987).  Armed robbery: cops, robbers and victims. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Gabrielli, W., & Mednick, S. (1984). Urban environment, genetics, and crime. Criminology, 22(4), 645-652.

Galea, S., Tremblay, R. E., & Larocque, D. (2002). Social capital and violence in the United States, 1974-1993. Social Science and Medicine, 55, 1373-1383.

Galle, O. R., Gove, W., & McPherson, J. M. (1972). Population density and pathology. Science, 176.

Gamman, L., & Pascoe, T. (2004). Design Out Crime? Using practice-based models of the design process. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 6(4), 37-56.

Gamman, L., & Pascoe, T. (2004). Seeing is believing: Notes toward a visual methodology and manifesto for crime prevention through environmental design. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 6(4), 9-18.

Gamman, L., Thorpe, A., & Willcocks, M. (2004). Bike off! Tracking the design terrains of cycle parking: Reviewing use, misuse and abuse. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 6(4), 19-36.

Gamman, L. and Thorpe, A. (2009). Less is More: What Design Against Crime can Contribute to Sustainability.  Built Environment, 35(3), 403-418.

Gardiner, R. A. (1978). Design for safe neighborhoods: The environmental security planning and design process. Washington, DC: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.

This manual describes the concept of 'environmental security', a comprehensive planning process for analyzing and understanding neighborhood crime problems. The manual emphasizes a preventative orientation to crime, utilizing physically and socially 'reinforcing' solutions.

Garofalo, J. (1977). Public opinion about crime: The attitudes of victims and nonvictims in selected cities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Garofalo, J. (1977b). Victimization and the fear of crime in major cities. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Buck Hill Falls, PA.

Garofalo, J. (1979). Victimization and the fear of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 16, 80-97.

Garofalo, J. (1987). Reassessing the lifestyle model of criminal victimization. In M. Gottfredson & T. Hirschi (Eds.), Positive Criminology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Gastil, R. D. (1972). Homicide and a regional culture of violence. American Sociological Review, 36(3), 412-472.

Gates, L., & Rohe, W. (1987). Fear and reactions to crime: A revised model. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 22, 425-453.

Gaylord, M. S., & Galliher, J. F. (1991). Riding the underground dragon: Crime control and public order on Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway. British Journal of Criminology, 31, 15-26.

Geason, S., & Wilson, P. R. (1989). Designing out crime: Crime prevention through environmental design. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Genre, C. (2002). Basic tips on lighting for CPTED. International CPTED Association Newsletter, 5(1), 3-4.

Genre, C. (2004). Where teaching ends and learning begins: A problem based learning model for CPTED education. The CPTED Journal, 1(3), 15-27.

Georges, D. E. (1978). The geography of crime and violence: A spatial and ecological perspective. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.

Georges-Abeyie, D. E., & Harries, K. D. (Eds.). (1980). Crime: A spatial perspective. New York: Columbia University Press.

Giacopassi, D., & Forde, D. (2000). Broken windows, crumpled fenders, and crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 25(5), 397-315.

Gibbs, J. P., & Erickson, M. (1976). Crime rates of american cities in an ecological context. American Journal of Sociology, 82(3), 605-620.

Gibbs, J. P., & Shelly, P. (1982). Life in the fast lane: A retrospective view by commercial thieves. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 19, 299-330.

Gibson, C., Jihong Zhao, L., Lovrich, N., & Gaffney, M. J. (2002). Social integration, individual perceptions of collective efficacy, and fear of crime in three cities. Justice Quarterly, 19(3), 537-564. .

Giggs, J. A. (1970). Socially disorganized areas in Barry: A multivariate analysis. In H. Carter & W.K.D. Davies (Eds.), Urban Essays: Studies in the Geography of Wales. London: Longman.

Gillis, A. R.(1974). Population density and social pathology: The case of building type, social allowance and juvenile delinquency. Social Forces, 53, 306-314.

Gimblett, H. R., Itami, R. M., & Fitzgibbon, J. E. (1985). Mystery in an information processing model of landscape preference. Landscape Journal, 4, 87-95.

Gladwell, M. (June 3, 1989). The tipping point. The New Yorker Magazine.

Gleason, S., & Wilson, P. (1989). Designing out crime: Crime prevention through environmental design. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Gobster, P. H. (1993). Managing urban open spaces for naturalness: Preferences of Chicago Housing Authority children. G. A. Vander Stoep (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1993 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 64-67). Radnor, PA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

Gobster, P. H., & Westphal, L. M. (2004). The human dimensions of urban greenways: Planning for recreation and related experiences. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68, 147–165.

Godbey, G. (1981). Old people and urban parks: An exploratory study. Washington, DC: American Association of Retired Persons.

Godbey, G., Patterson, A., & Brown, L. (1979). The relationship of crime and fear of crime among the elderly to leisure behavior and use of public leisure services. Washington, DC: American Association of Retired Persons.

An extensive study by several of the leaders in elderly/crime studies. This study examined crime and fear of crime among the elderly residing in urban areas in regard to its effect upon their leisure and use of public recreation and park services. The study also sought techniques useful in minimizing such crime and fear of crimeFear of crime was found to be pervasive among the population surveyed and victims were particularly fearful. Nine percent of all those surveyed reported being the victim of crime during the last year.

Goffman, E. (1963). Behavior in public places: Notes on social organization of gathering. New York: Free Press.

Gold, S. M. (1969). A concept for outdoor recreation planning in the inner city. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Gold, S. M. (1970). Urban violence and contemporary defensive cities. Journal of American Institute of Planners, 36, 146-159.

Gold, S. M. (1972). Nonuse of neighborhood parks. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 38, 369-378.

This article discusses various implications/causes of park non-use, including personal safety. Causes of non-use presented include: Social Restraints, Access, Site Characteristics and Personal Safety. The author discusses implications and offers possible solutions to the problems discussed. This work may be of more use for gaining a perspective on how the field has progressed than for realizing new ideas.

Goldberg, F., & Michelson, W. (1978). Defensible space as a factor in combating fear among the elderly: Evidence from Sherbourne Lanes. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Theory Compendium. Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National Issues Center.

Goldstein, H. (1990). Problem-oriented Policing. New York: McGraw Hill.

Golledge, R. G., & Stimson, R. S. (1997). Spatial behavior: A geographic perspective. New York: Guilford Press.

Goodman, L. H., Miller, T., & DeForest, P. (1966). A study of the deterrent value of crime prevention measures as perceived by criminal offenders. Washington, DC: Bureau of Social Science Research.

Gordon, M. T., & Riger, S. (1978). The fear of rape project. Victimology: An International Journal, 3, 346-347.

Gordon, M. T., Riger, S., LeBailly, R., & Health, L. (1981). Crime, women and the quality of urban life. In C. Simpson (Ed.), Women and the American city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gordon, R. A. (1967). Issues in the ecological study of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 32(6), 927-944.

Grandjean, C. (1990). Bank robberies and physical security in Switzerland: a case study of the escalation and displacement phenomena. Security Journal, 1(1), 155-159.

Grant, A. (1988). Women and public urban space: Women's freedom of movement in the City of Toronto. (Unpublished master's thesis). Ontario: Department of Geography, University of Toronto.

Green, D. P., Strolovitch, D. Z., & Wong, J. S. (1998). Defended neighborhoods, integration, and racially motivated crime. American Journal of Sociology, 104(2), 372-403.

Green, J. R. (1989). Police officer job satisfaction and community perceptions: Implications for community-oriented policing. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 26(2), 168-183.

Green, E., Booth, C. E., & Biderman, M. (1976). Cluster analysis of burglary M/O's. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 4(4).

Greenberg, D., Kessler, R., & Loftin, C. (1983). The effect of police employment on crime. Criminology-An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21(3), 375-394.

Greenberg, S. W. (1986). Fear and its relationship to crime, neighborhood deterioration and informal social control. In J. M. Bryne and R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The Social Ecology of Crime (pp. 47-62). New York: Springer Verlag.

Greenberg, S. W., & Rohe, W. M. (1984). Neighborhood design and crime: A test of two perspectives. American Planning Association Journal, 50, 48-61.

(This) paper assesses the validity of two perspectives on the effect of the physical design of buildings, sites, and neighborhoods on crime--the defensible space approach and the opportunity approach. Study examined differences in physical characteristics and various dimensions of informal social control within and among three pairs of neighborhoods matched on racial composition and economic status but with distinctly different crime levels. Study results lend far more support to opportunity model of crime in residential areas than to the defensible space model.*

Greenberg, S. W., & Rohe, W. M. (1986). Informal social control and crime prevention in modern urban neighborhoods. In R. Taylor (Ed.), Urban Neighborhoods: Research and Policy (79-118). New York, NY: Praeger.

Greenberg, S. W., Rohe, W. M., & Williams, J. (1982). Safety in urban neighborhoods: A comparison of physical characteristics and informal territorial control in high and low crime neighborhoods. Population and Environment, 5(3), 141-165.

Greenberg, S. W., Rohe, W. M., & Williams, J. (1985). Informal citizen action and crime prevention at the neighborhood level: Synthesis and assessment of the research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Griswold, D. B. (1992). Crime prevention and commercial burglary: A time series analysis. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

Grove, G. R. (1976). Role theory considered as an influence on criminal and deviant behavior in the Utah State Park system-a manager problem. (Unpublished master's thesis), Utah State University, Logan.

Guerry, A.M. (1833). Essai sur la statistique moral de la France. Paris: Chez Crochard.

Gulak, M. (2004). Homicide and the physical environment: Assessing the CPTED approach. The CPTED Journal, 3(1), 46-52.

Hagan, J., Gillis, A. R., & Chan, J. (1978). Explaining official delinquency: A spatial study of class, conflict and control. The Sociological Quarterly, 19(3), 386-398.

Hagan, J., & Zatz, M. (1985).  The social organization of criminal justice processing: An event history analysis. Social Science Research, 14(2), 103-125.

Hagedorn, J. (1990). Back in the field again: Gang research in the Nineties. In C. R. Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Hakim, S., & Shachmurove, Y. (1996). Spatial and temporal patterns of commercial burglaries: The evidence examined. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 55(4), 443-456.

Hammitt, W. E. (1980). Designing mystery into trail-landscape experiences. Journal of Interpretation, 5, 16-19.

The author found that high visual preference was found for trail hikers where scenes in photos showed a trail winding out of view, but only when dense vegetation obscured the receding trail. This lack of information is termed 'mystery'. [While mystery may prove pleasing in some safe settings (such as remote Cranberry Glades, WV, as in this study), it may make people feel unsafe in more urban settings.

Hammond, J. L. (1973). Two sources of error in ecological correlations. American Sociological Review, 38(6), 764-777.

Ham-Rowbottom, K. A., Gifford, R., & Shaw, K. T. (1999). Defensible space theory and the police: assessing the vulnerability of residences to burglary. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 117-29.

Hancox, P. D., & Morgan, J. B. (1975). The use of CCTV for police control at football matches. Police Research Bulletin, 25, 41-44.

Hann, B., & Billingsley, B. (1981). Security in the Toronto Transit System. Toronto: The Research Group.

Hanson, P. O., & Boehnke, B. (1976). The spatial analysis of crime: A bibliography. Montecello, IL: Council of Planning Librarians Exchange Bibliography No. 1166.

Harries, K. (1971). The geography of American crime, 1968. Journal of Geography, 70(4), 204. Harries, K. (1975). Rejoinder to Richard Peet: The geography of crime - A political critique. Professional Geographer, 27(3), 277.

Harries, K. (1974). The geography of crime and justice. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Harries, K. (1975). Recent literature on the geography of crime: Review and comment. The Pennsylvania Geographer,13(3).

Harries, K. (1976). Observations of radical versus liberal theories of crime causation. Professional Geographer, 28, 100.

Harries, K. (1980). Crime and the environment. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Books.

"This monograph reviews the environments of criminogenesis from a broad ecological perspective, emphasizing both human and physical phenomena. Human environments are examined from both the macro- and microlevel perspectives...At the micro-, or intraurban, scale a number of recent studies are examined, their strengths and weaknesses underlined, and their essential findings synthesized.(vii)"**

Harries, K. (1987). Spatial and temporal dimensions of assaults against children. A paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers. Portland.

Harries, K. (1990). Serious violence: Patterns of homicide and assault in America. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Harries, K. (1994). Violence and the long hot summer. In G. Saville (Ed.), Crime Problems, Community Solutions: Environmental Criminology as a Developing Prevention Strategy. Port Moody, BC: AAG Inc. Publications.

Harries, K. (2000). Filters, fears, and photos. Speculations and explorations in the geography of crime. In V. Goldsmith, P.G. McGuire, J.H. Mollenkopf, & T.A. Ross (Eds.), Analyzing crime patterns. Frontiers of practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Harries, K. (2006).  Property crimes and violence in the U.S.: Analysis of the influence of population density. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences. 1:25-34.

Harries, K. D., & Brunn, S. D. (1978). The geography of laws and justice: Spatial perspectives on the criminal justice system. New York, NY: Praeger.

Harries, K. D., & Ura, R. P. (1974). The geography of justice: Sentencing variations in U.S. judicial districts. Judicature, 57(9), 392.

Harrington-Lynn, J., & Pascoe, T. (1998). A strategy for the security of buildings. Journal of 29th Annual IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, Surrey, England.

Harrington-Lynn, J., & Pascoe, T. (1998b). Bexley town centre security project: Executive summary & final report (BRE CR. 58/98). Watfortd: Building Research Establishment Ltd.

Harris, D. W. (1991). A safer city. The second stage report of the Safe City Committee. Toronto, OT: Safe City Committee, Planning and Development Department.

Harris, J. (1979). Lawless behavior: Are park managers part of the problem? California Park and Recreation Society, 35, 42-43.

Harris, J., & Brown, P. (1972). Law enforcement in the forest. Journal of Forestry, 70, 750-751.

Hartnagel, T. F. (1979). The perception and fear of crime: Implications for neighborhood cohesion, social activity, and community affect. Social Forces, 58, 176-193.

"This research examines the relationship between the perception and fear of crime on the one hand and neighborhood cohesion, social activity and affect for the community on the other...The hypotheses that the perception of increased crime and the fear of crime would be inversely related to neighborhood cohesion and social activity were not supported. But as hypothesized, the fear of crime was negatively related to affect for the community."

Hartnagel, T. F. (1997). Crime among the provinces: The effect of geographic mobility. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 39(4), 387-402.

Harvey, M., & DiGiammerino, D. (1981). Anti-social behavior in urban parks: A prospectus. Kent, OH: Department of Geography, Kent State University.

Hashemi, Seyed Manaf, Hadi Mahmoudinejad, Omid Ahadian. (2011). Improvement of Environment Security and Decrease of Crimes with the Confirmation of CPTED (with the Emphasis on Iran’s Condition). Journal of Sustainable Development. 4 (3), 142-150.

Hassinger, J. R. (1983). Attributes of urban environments feared by handgun carriers. EDRA (Environmental Design Research Association), 14, 113-117.

Hassinger, J. R. (1985). Fear of crime in public environments. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 2, 289-300.

Hawdon, J., & Ryan, J. (2009). Social capital, social control, and changes in victimization rates. Crime & Delinquency, 55(4), 526-549.

Hayes, R. M. (1973). Crime rates and city size in America. Area, 5(3), 162-165.

Hayes, R. M. (1997). Retail crime control: A new operational strategy. Security Journal, 8(3), 225-232.

Heal, K., & Laycock, G. (1986). Situational crime prevention: From theory into practice. London: HMSO.

Healy, R. J. (1968). Design for security. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Heikkila, E., Dale-Johnson, D., Gordon, P., Kim, J. I., Peiser, R. B., & Richardson, H. W. (1989). What happened to the CBD-distance gradient?: Land values in a polycentric city. Environment and Planning: An International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21(2), 221.

Heinzelmann, F. (1981). Crime prevention and the physical environment. In D. Lewis (Ed.), Reactions to Crime (pp. 87-101). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Helsey, R., & Strange, G. (1999). Gated communities and the economic geography of crime. Journal of Urban Economics, 46(1), 80-105.

Henig, J., & Maxfield, M. G., (1978). Reducing fear of crime: Strategies for intervention. Victimology, 3, 297-313.

Henshel, R., & Carey, S. (1975). Deviance, deterrence and knowledge of sanctions. In R. Henshel & R. Silverman (Eds.), Perception in Criminology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Herbert, D. T.  (1976). Social deviance in the city: A spatial perspective. In D.T. Herbert & R.J. Johnston (Eds.), Social Areas in Cities (Vol. 2): Spatial Perspectives on Problems and Policies. London: John Wiley and Sons.

Herbert, D. T. (1976). The study of delinquency areas: A social geographical approach. Transactions. Institute of British Geographers, 1(4), 472-492.

Herbert, D. T. (1977). An areal and ecological analysis of delinquency residence: Cardiff, 1966 and 1971. Tijdschrift voor Economishe en Social Geografie, 68(2), 83-99.

Herbert, D. T. (1977b). Crime, delinquency and the urban environment. Progress in Human Geography, 1(2), 208-239.

Herbert, D. T. (1979). Urban crime: A geographical perspective. In D.T. Herbert & D.M. Smith (Eds.), Social Problems of the City. London: Oxford University Press.

Herbert, D. T. (1982). The geography of urban crime. Harlow, UK: Longman.

"This book is the latest in a series called Topics in Applied Geography. (It) provides the reader with a superficial overview of the field, some useful examples for teachers; presents detailed description of spatial patterns, distributions, and correlates and explores ways in which geographical research can widen its horizons and hopefully reorder its priorities, especially with regard to policy formulation."

Herbert, D. T. (1983). Crime and delinquency. In M. Pacione, (Ed.), Progress in Urban Geography. London: Croom Helm.

Herbert, David & Davidson, Norman. (1994). Modifying the built environment: the impact of improved street lighting. Geoforum. 25(3), 339-350.

Herbert, D., & Evans, D. (Eds). (1989). The Geography of Crime. London: Routledge.

Herbert, D. T., & Hyde, S. (1984). Residential crime and the urban environment. Swindon: Economic and Social Research Council.

Herbert, D. T., & Hyde, S. (1985). Environmental criminology: Testing some area hypothesis. Transcripts of the Institute of British Geographers, 10(3), 259-274.

Herbert, D., & Moore, L. (1991). Street lighting and crime, The Cardiff Project. Cardiff: University College of Swansea Department of Geography.

Herron, J. C., Stein, D. P., & Crawshaw, J. (1968). Crime prediction by computer - Does it work and is it useful. Proceedings of the Second National Symposium on Law Enforcement Science and Technology: Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute.

Herzog, T. R., & Chernick, K. K. (2000). Tranquility and danger in urban and natural settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20, 29-39.

Herzog, T. R., & Kutzli, G. E. (2002). Preference and perceived danger in fields/forest settings. Environment and Behavior, 34(6), 819-835.

Herzog, T. R., & Flynn-Smith, J. A. (2001). Preference and perceived danger as a function of the perceived curvature, length, and width of urban alleys. Environment and Behavior. 33(5), 653-666.

Herzog, T. R., & Smith, G. A. (1988). Danger, mystery, and environmental preference. Environment and Behavior, 20, 320-344.

Hesseling, R. B. P. (1992). Displacement: A review of the empirical literature. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies: Vol. 3 (pp. 197-230). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Hesseling, R. B. P. (1995). Theft from cars: reduced or displaced?. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 3(1), 79-92.

Heywood, I., Hall, N., & Redhead, P. (1992). Is there a role for spatial information systems in formulating multi-agency crime prevention strategies? In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe and D. T. Herbert (Eds.), Crime, policing and place: Essays in environmental criminology (pp. 73-92). New York: Routledge.

“This chapter considers...a spatial database and geographic information system (GIS) approach to the storage, management and manipulation of crime-related community data.”

Hierlihy, D. (1991). Green spaces/safer places: A forum on planning safer parks for women. (Available from Safe City Committee, City of Toronto Planning & Development Dept., 18th Floor, East Tower, City Hall, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2N2).

Higgins, K. (1997). Exploring motor vehicle theft in Australia. Canberra: Australia Institute of Criminology.

Higgins, P. C., Richards, P.J., & Swan, J.H. (1976). Crowding and crime rates: A comment. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 11(3), 291-307.

Hilborn, Jim. (2009). Dealing With Crime and Disorder in Parks. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police, Response Guides Series, Number 9. US Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing. Washington, DC.

Hillier, B. (1973). In defence of space. RIBA Journal, 11, 539-44.

Hillier, B. (2004). Can streets be made safer. Urban Design International, 9, 31-45.

Hillier, B., & Shu, S. (1999). Do burglars understand defensible space? New evidence on the relation between crime and space. Planning in London, 29, 36-39.

Hillier, B., & Shu, S. (2000). Crime and urban layout: the need for evidence. In S. Ballintyne, K. Pease, & V. McLaren (Eds.), Secure Foundations: Key Issues in Crime Prevention (pp. 224-248). London: Crime Reduction and Community Safety, Institute of Public Policy Research.

Hindelang, M. (1974). Public opinion regarding crime, criminal justice, and related topics. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 11, 101-116.

Hindelang, M. (1976). Criminal victimizations in eight American cities: A descriptive analysis of common theft and assault. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Hindelang, M., Gottfredson, M., & Garafolo, J. (1978). Victims of personal crime: An empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Hino, Kimihiro, Toshiya Yamamoto & Sumito Hoshino. (2008). Sustainability of activities for community safety: Two successful case studies. Paper presented at the 21st EAROPH World Planning and Human Settlement Congress and Mayors' Caucus. October. Himeji & Awaji, Hyogo, Japan.

Hino, Kimihiro. (2011). “Bouhan Machizukuri” (Community Building for Crime Prevention) in Japan. Reports of the City Planning Instititue of Japan. No 10, (May) 38-45.

Hirschfield, A., & Bowers, K. (1997). The development of a social, demographic and land use profiler for areas of high crime. British Journal of Criminology, 37(1), 103-120.

Home Office. (1991). The influence of street lighting on crime and fear of crime. (Crime Prevention Unit Paper 28).  London: Home Office. 

Home Office. (2000). An evaluation of secured by design housing within West Yorkshire. (H.O. Briefing Note 7/00). London: Crown Copyright.

Homel, R. (1996). Politics and practice of situational crime prevention. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Hoshino, K., Mugishima, F., & Harada, Y. (1984). A study on the relationships of traits of cities to activities of organized criminal gangs. Reports of the National Research Institute of Police Science, (Tokyo), 25(1).

Hough, M. (1980). Designing out crime. Police Research Bulletin, 35, 28-31.

Hough, M. (1987). Offenders' choice of target: Findings from victim surveys. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3, 355-367.

Hough, M. (1987b). Thinking about effectiveness. British Journal of Criminology, 27(1), 70-71.

Hough, M., Clarke, R. V., & Mayhew, P. (1980). Introduction. In R.V.G. Clarke & P. Mayhew (Eds.), Designing Out Crime. London: HMSO.

Hope, T., & Shaw, M. (Eds.). (1988). Communities and crime reduction. London: H.M.S.O.

"The purpose of this book, which represents the outcome of a conference convened by the Home Office Research and Planning Unit in 1986, is to bring together some current ideas, experience, practice and policy, from those who have been working on the problems of how to prevent crime....In so doing, it is hoped to clarify directions for future policy and practice. The authors, coming as they do from a number of different countries and backgrounds, illustrate the current collective concern with crime prevention (p. 1)."

This paper discusses research on offender decision making and presents results from the1982 and1984 British Crime Surveys (BCS). The discussion of previous research is effective, particularly in pointing out difficulties posed by various methods. The BCS results presented focus on burglary. With over 11,000 homes surveyed in the BCS the author's findings bear consideration. He writes that crime surveys "offer a useful corrective to some of the distortions in conventional studies of target selection. The main points to emerge about burglars' choice of targets are as follows: proximity is a key factor determining choice of target for most burglars; burglars select poor homes no less than those with average incomes, but affluent homes are more at risk than others; and accessibility factors are taken in account-homes frequently left empty and those with rear access are more vulnerable, for example; and as many as half of all burglaries end in failure (p. 366)."

Hudson, C. (1983). Residential burglary. (Home Office Research Bulletin, 15). London: H.M.S.O.

Hull, R. B., & Harvey, A. (1989). Explaining the emotion people experience in suburban parks. Environment and Behavior, 21, 323-345.

"In general, pleasure increases as tree density increases and understory density decreases...arousal increases with increasing understory vegetation density...and people prefer parks that are both pleasant and arousing. Results suggest that considerable control over affect can be exercised through manipulation of a park's physical characteristics." The implications of these findings for safety are reflected in the studies that have investigated vegetation from the safety standpoint. Those results of those works converge with those of these authors in that lower vegetation is perceived negatively and arousal increases with increased understory. Heightened feelings of awareness from a perception of lowered safety may account for this study's findings on increased arousal.

Hunter, A., & Baumer, T. (1982). Street traffic, social integration and fear of crime. Sociological Inquiry, 52, 122-131.

Hunter, J. (1978), Defensible space in practice. Architects Journal, 11, 675-678.

Hunter, R. D. (1987). The relationship of selected environmental characteristics to the incidence of convenience store robbery within the state of Florida. Paper presented at The 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Montreal.

Hunter, R. D., & Jeffery, C. R. (1992). Preventing convenience store robbery through environmental design. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

Hye-Mi, Shinhyemi, Song Jeong-Hwa, & Oh Kun-Soo. (2009). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design for the Outdoor Neighborhood Facilities in the Apartment Housing Complex. International Journal of the Architectural Institute. 29 (1), 1-868. 

Irving, H. W. (1978). Space and environment in interpersonal relations. In D.T. Herbert & R.J. Johnston (Eds.), Geography and the Urban Environment. Vol. 1. London: Wiley.

Iseki, H. (2006) Examining the relationship between built environments and crime incidents using GIS. The CPTED Journal, 1(1), 35-45.

Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Random House.

Jackson, B. (1969). A thief's primer. New York: MacMillan.

This book delves into the life and definition of so called 'career criminals'. In a unique format it consists of the recorded and recompiled comments of such an individual, in this case a thief, whose trust the author had earned during contact within a correctional facility. Although dated, the thief's discourses are detailed and comprehensive.

Jackson, P. (1972). The spatial structure of juvenile crime in Phoenix, 1968. A paper presented at the 68th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers. Kansas City.

Jackson, P. (1984). Opportunity and crime: A function of city size. Sociology and Social Research, 68(2), 172-193.

Jackson, P., & Carroll, L. (1983). Inequality, opportunity, and crime rates in central cities. Criminology-An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21(2), 178-194.

Jacobs, J. (1961). Death and life of great American cities. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Jarvis, G. K. (1972). The ecological analysis of juvenile delinquency in a Canadian city. In G.L. Boydell, et al. (Eds.), Deviant Behavior and Societal Reaction. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Jeffrey, C. R. (1969). Crime prevention and control through environmental engineering. Criminologica, 7(1), 35-58.

Jeffery, C. R. (1971). Crime prevention through environmental design. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

Environmental crime control adheres to the classical principles of prevention of crime before it occurs, and certainty of consequence for behavior, but shifts emphasis from punishment and the individual offender to reinforcement and the environment. This is the first book to use the term CPTED. The author clearly intended that prevention should become more holistic with biology, urban planning, sociology, and psychology integrated into one discipline focused on preventing crime. Only one chapter, however, deals with geographical and urban planning considerations.

Jeffery, C. R. (1976). Criminal behavior and the physical environment. The American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 149-174.

Three articles in this issue are most noteworthy: Jeffery's Criminal behavior and the physical environment: A perspective, Duffala's Convenience stores, armed robbery, and physical environmental features, and Reppetto's Crime prevention through environmental policy: A critique.

Jeffery, C. R. (1979). Biology and crime. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Jeffery, C. R. (1987). Spatial/Computer analysis of commercial crime sites in Atlanta and Tallahassee. A paper presented at The 39th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Criminology. Montreal.

Jeffery, C. R., Hunter, D., & Griswood, J. (1987). Crime prevention and computer analyses of convenience store robberies in Tallahassee, Florida. Paper presented at Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

Jeffrey, M. (1968). A burglar's life. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Jobes, P. C. (1999). Residential stability and crime in small rural agricultural and recreational towns. Sociological Perspectives, 42(3), 499.

Johnson, D. (1999). Six safer cities. The Futurist, 33(8), 18.

Johnson, S. D., Sidebottom, A., & Thorpe, A. (June 2008). Bicycle Theft: Problem-Oriented Guides For Police, Problem-Specific Guide Series No-52.  Office of Community-Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/e060810143.pdf.

The purpose of this guide is to inform local police departments about the prevention and response to bicycle theft.  The section titled “Where Bicycle Theft Occurs” cites university campuses and public transportation hubs as common locations for such crimes to occur.

Johnston, E. (1981). Research methods in criminology and criminal justice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Jorgensen, A., Hitchmough, J., & Calvert, T. (2002). Woodland spaces and edges: Their impact on perception of safety and preference. Landscape and Urban Planning, 60, 135-150.

Joyce, D. V. (1976, September). Crime in parks: 8 alternatives that might work for your park system. Park Maintenance.

Jubenville, A., Twight, B. W., & Becker, R. H. (1987). Public safety. Outdoor Recreation Management: Theory and Application. State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Kabundi, M., & Normandeau, A. (1987). Crime in the Montreal subway. International Criminology and Police Review, 24-27.

Kadushin, C., Reber, E., Saxe, L., & Livert, D. (1998). Substance use system: Social and neighborhood environments associated with substance use and misuse. Substance Use and Misuse, 33(8), 1681-1710.

Kaiser, R. A., Fletcher, J. A., & Steele, R. J. (1989). Legal, actual and perceived implications of safety and security problems at public beaches. Coastal Management, 17 (4).

Kaplan, H. M., O'Kane, K. C.,  Lavrakas, P. J., & Pesce, E. J. (1978). Crime prevention through environmental design: Final report on commercial demonstration in Portland, Oregon. Washington, D.C.: Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

Katzman, M. (1980). The contribution of crime to urban decline. Urban Studies, 17, 277-286.

Keeley, R. M., & Edney, J. J. (1983). Model house designs for privacy, security, and social interaction. Journal of Social Psychology, 119, 219-228.

This brief paper was purposed to study interaction between the sexes as "(c)ollege undergraduates were asked to construct models of houses that would promote privacy, security, or social interaction for occupants." While interesting for its own sake, the study likewise touches lightly upon security factors as perceived by the study population.

Kelling, G. L., & Coles, C. (1996). Fixing broken windows: Restoring order and reducing crime in our communities. Free Press, New York, 319 pp.

Kelling, G. L., & Wilson, J. Q. (1982, March). The police and neighborhood safety. The Atlantic Monthly, 127, 29.

Kennedy, D. B. (1983). Architectural concerns regarding security and premises liability. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 10(2), 105-29.

Kennedy, D. B. (1990). Facility site selection and analysis through environmental criminology. Journal of Criminal Justice, 18, 239-252.

Kennedy, L., & Forde, D. (1990). Routine activities and crime: An analysis of victimization in Canada. Criminology, 28, 137-152.

Kilburn, J. (1997). Security and rational choice: Household, community, and public provision. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 57(9), 4153-A.

Kilburn, J., & Wesley, S. (1998). Private and collective protection in urban areas. Urban Affairs Review, 33(6), 790-812.

Kim, J., & Park, Y. (2002). The CPTED evaluation model using Space Syntax Theory. The CPTED Journal, 1(1), 35-45.

Kirk, N. L. (1986). Perceptions of safety in the campus environment. (Unpublished paper), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana.

Kirk, N. L. (1988). Factors affecting perceptions of safety in a campus environment. EDRA (Environmental Design Research Association), 19, 215-222.

Kirk, N. L. (1988b). Factors affecting perceptions of safety in a campus environment. In J. Sime (Ed.), Safety in the built environment (pp. 285-296). London: E., & F.N. Spon.

Kirk, N. L. (1989). Factors affecting perceptions of social safety in public open space. (MA Thesis, Landscape Architecture), University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana.

Kitchen, T. (2005). New Urbanism and CPTED in the British Planning System: Some critical reflections. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 22(4).

Kleinman, P. H., & David, D. S. (1973). Victimization and perception of crime in a ghetto community. Criminology, 11(3), 307-344.

Klinger, D. (1997). Negotiating order in patrol work: An ecological theory of police response to deviance. Criminology, 35(2), 277-306.

Knopf, R. C., & Dustin, D. L. (1992). A multidisciplinary model for managing vandalism and depreciative behavior in recreation settings. In M. Manfredo (Ed.), Influencing human behavior: Theory and application in recreation and tourism (pp. 209-261). Champaign¬Urbana, IL: Sagamore Press.

Koehler, C. T. (1988). Urban design and crime: A partially annotated bibliography. Chicago, IL: Council of Planning Librarians, No. 218.

This work consists of 1) a brief Introduction, 2) a section on General Theory and Applications, and 3) a section on Urban Design and Crime, yielding a total of twenty-one pages in all. The majority of works cited pertain to urban planning and architecture, specifically housing. While many of the pieces listed in this work may also be found in this bibliography, there are a great many which are not listed herein.

Kohn, I. R., Frank, K., & Fox, A. S. (1975). Defensible space modifications in row house communities. New York: National Science Foundation Institute for Community Design Analysis.

Koppel, H. (1987). Lifetime likelihood of victimization (Technical Report). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Kornblum, W., & Williams, T. (1983). New Yorkers and Central Park: A report to the Central Park Conservancy. New York: Sociology Department, Graduate Center, CUNY.

Koskela, H., & Pain, P. (2000). Revisiting fear and place: women’s fear of attack and the built environment. Geoforum, 31(2), 269-280.

Kowalski, G. S., Dittmann, R. L., Jr., & Bung, W. L. (1980). Spatial distribution of criminal offenses by States, 1970-1976. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 17, 4-25.

Kramer, J. J. (Ed.). (1977). The role of behavioral sciences in physical security. National Bureau of Standards.

Kraut, D. T. (1999). Hanging out the no vacancy sign: eliminating the blight of vacant buildings from urban areas. New York University Law Review, 74(7), 1139-77.

Kreps, G. M. (1977). A study of crime in rural Ohio: The relationship between ecological factors and a rural crime index (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (5). (University Microfilms No. 77-24, 653).

Krupat, E., & Kubzansky, P. E. (1987). Designing to deter crime. Psychology Today, (Oct.), 58-61.

Kuo, F. E. (2003). The role of arboriculture in a healthy social ecology. Journal of Arboriculture, 29(3)148-155.

Kuo, F. E., Bacaioa, M., & Sullivan, W. C. (1998). Trees, sense of safety, and preference for outdoor spaces in urban public housing. Environment and Behavior, 30(1), 28-59.

"One hundred residents of Chicago's Robert Taylor Homes rated computer simulations of different landscape treatments of an outdoor space in terms of preference and safety. The simulations of the space varied in the number of trees, tree arrangement, subspaces created by the trees, and level of landscape maintenance. Results indicate that-contrary to views of the police-outdoor residential spaces with more trees are seen as significantly more attractive, more safe, and more likely to be used than similar spaces without trees. Implications for design and policy are discussed."

Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (2001). Environment and Crime in the Inner City: Does Vegetation Reduce Crime? Environment and Behavior, 33(3), 343-367.

Kushmuk, J., & Whittermore, S. (1981). Re-Evaluation of crime prevention through environmental design in Portland, Oregon (NCJ Document 80573). Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.

Kvalseth, T. O. (1977). A note on the effects of population density and unemployment on urban crime. Criminology, 15(1), 105-110.

Lab, S. P. (1988). Crime prevention: Approaches, practices and evaluations. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.

Labs, K. (1989). P/A technics: Deterrence by design. Progressive Architecture. 11,100-103.

Landles, R. A. (1970). Criminal activity in selected Seattle parks. Seattle, WA: Department of Parks and Recreation.

Lasley, J. R. (1996). Using traffic barriers to design out crime: A program evaluation of LAPD’s Operation Cul-De-Sac (Report to the National Institute of Justice). Fullerton, CA: California State University.

Lasley, J. R. (1998). Designing out gang homicides and street assaults. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Lasley, J. R., & Rosenbaum, J. L. (1988). Routine activities and multiple personal victimization. Sociology and Social Research, 73(1), 47-50.

Latane, C. (December 2010). Police presence. Landscape Architecture, 100(13), 58-69.

This article describes the design of the Los Angeles police department’s new Police Administration Building.  The project was met with substantial criticism due to conflict over the site.  Landscape Architects from the Melendrez design company were able to strike a balance between safety (the site is protected from car bombs and other perceived threats) as well as the community’s need for open space.  Despite maintenance problems, the design is considered a success by the author.   

Latane, B., & Darley, J. (1970). The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn't he help? New York: Appleton-Centry-Croft.

Laub, J. (1983). Patterns of offending in urban and rural areas. Journal of Criminal Justice, 11(2), 129-142.

Laub, J. (1983b). Urbanism, race, and crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 20(2), 183-198.

La Vigne, N. (1996). Crime prevention through the design and management of the built environment: The case of the DC Metro. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 57(4), 1855-A.

La Vigne, N. (1996b). Safe transport: Security by design on the Washington metro. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Preventing Mass Transit Crime (pp. 163-197). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

La Vigne, N. (1997). Visibility and vigilance: Metro’s situational approach to preventing subway crime. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, NIJ.

Lavrakas, P. (1982). Fear of crime and behavioral restrictions in urban and suburban neighborhoods. Population and Environment Behavioral and Social Issues, 5(4), 242-264.

Lavrakas, P., & Kushmuk, J. W. (1986). Evaluating crime prevention through environmental design: The Portland Commerical Demonstration Project. In D. Rosenbaum (Ed.). Community Crime Prevention: Does It Work? (pp. 202-227). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Law Enforcement. (November 1970) Citizens safety in parks and recreation. Parks and Recreation.

Laycock, G. (1984). Reducing burglary: A study of chemists' shops. (Crime Prevention Unity. Paper 1). London: Home Office Crime Prevention Unit.

Laycock, G. (1985). Property marking: A deterrent to domestic burglary? (Crime Prevention Unit. Paper 3). London: Home Office Crime Prevention Unit.

Laycock, G., & Heal, K. (1989). Crime prevention: The British experience. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The Geography of Crime. New York: Routledge.

Leach, B., Lesiuk, E., & Morton, P .E.. (1986). Perceptions of fear in the urban environment. Women and Environments, Spring, 10-12.

LeBeau, J. L. (1987). Environmental design as a rationale for prevention. In E. Johnson (Ed.), Handbook on Crime and Delinquency Prevention. New York, NY: Greenwood Press.

LeBeau, J. L. (1987b). The journey to rape: Geographic distance and the rapist's method of approaching the victim. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 15, 129-161.

Lee, K. H. (1992). Community and burglary in the urban residential street block: An environmental analysis. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.

Lee, R. (1972). The social definition of outdoor recreation places. In W. Burch (Ed.), Social behavior, natural resources and the environment. New York: Harper & Row.

Lee, Y., & Egan, F. (1972). The geography of urban crime: The spatial pattern of serious crime in the City of Denver. Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers, 4, 59-64.

Lee, Y., Leung, Y., & Lyles, L. (1974). Two conceptual approaches and an empirical analysis of the origin node of violent crimes. Proceedings of the American Association of Geographers, 6.

Lehrer, E. (2000). Crime-fighting and urban renewal. Public Interest, 141, 91-103.

LeJeune, R. (1977). The management of a mugging. Urban Life, 6, 123-148.

LeJeune, R., & Alex, N. (1973). On being mugged: The event and its aftermath. Urban Life and Culture, (October), 259-287.

The authors interviewed 24 victims of 'muggings', having them relive their experiences, their feelings, and any meanings they attached to the incident. The article was written at a time when this nation was just beginning to pay attention to this form of personal attack. Hence, much of what it has to offer is victim response, rather than empirical data or quantifiable data. This may be attributable to the sociological background of the researchers. None-the-less, the reader can expect to find insights into the process of muggings (including victim response), but more so into the changed psyche of the victim, who, the authors say, begins to see the city as "a jungle". Also of considerable interest is the discussion of victims' feelings of safety in familiar environments. The authors suggest that "ecological sentiments may act as blinders" to changes in safety. That is, they failed to accept or recognize how their environment was changing over the years, or even over a matter of minutes in the case of a mugging itself.

Lentz, P., Sternhall, R., & Lyle, C. (1977, April). The limits of lighting: The New Orleans experiment in crime reduction. The Mayor's Criminal Justice Coordinating Council.

Letkemann, P. (1973). Crime as work. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Levan, V. (2004). Second-Generation CPTED at work: Building community culture cridges in Parisian Belleville. The CPTED Journal, 3(1), 3-14.

Levin, Y., & Lindesmith, A. C. (1937). English ecology and criminology of the past century. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 27(6), 801-816.

Levine, J. P. (1976). The potential for crime overreporting in criminal victimization surveys. Criminology, 14(3), 307-330.

Levy¬Leboyer, C. (1984). Vandalism: Behavior and motivations. New York: North Holland Printing.

Lewis, D. A. (Ed.). (1981). Reactions to crime. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Lewis, D. A., & Maxfield, M. G. (1980). Fear in the neighborhoods: An investigation of the impact of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 17, 160-189.

Lewis, D. A., & Salem, G. (1981). Community crime prevention: An analysis of a developing strategy. Crime and Delinquency, 27, 405-421.

Ley, D., & Cybriwsky, R. (1974). The spatial ecology of stripped cars. Environment and Behavior, 6, 235-244.

Ley, D., & Cybriwsky, R. (1974b). Urban graffiti as territorial markers. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 64, 491-505.

Li, W. (2008). Understand the social impact of green---evaluation of the impacts of urban vegetation on neighborhood crime. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

"Results of this research prove that the integration of geospatial modeling and advanced statistical analyses is of central importance to ensure the explanation of up to 97% of Part I neighborhood crime. In light of their effects on crime, vegetation settings are found to have a positive relationship with property crime, while a negative relationship with most violent crime. More high view-blocking vegetation settings, especially in public space, are significantly correlated with more violent crime but less property crime. In summary, the relationships between vegetation settings and crime are more complex than that were reported in the literature. How vegetation settings affect neighborhood safety is not only a matter of demographic and socioeconomic status of people, planning and management of urban space, and the construction of landscape settings, but also determined by the mechanisms, through which different types of crime occur in varied social and physical context. Therefore, for various categories of crime, the impacts of landscape settings could be totally different."

Liggett, R., Loukaitou-Sideris, A., & Iseki, H. (2001). The bus stop-environment connection: Do characteristics of the built environment correlate with bus stop crime? Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1760, 20-27.

Light, R., Nee, C., and Ingham, H. (1993). Car theft: The offender's perspective. Home Office Research Study (No. 130). London, UK: HMSO.

Linden, R., & Prarie Research Associates Inc. (1990). Crime prevention and urban safety in residential environments: Final report. Ottawa: CMHC.

Lindstrom, P. (1997). Patterns of school crime: A replication and empirical extension. British Journal of Criminology, 37(1), 121-130.

Loewen, L. J., Steel, G. D., & Suedfeld, P. (1993). Perceived safety from crime in the urban environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 323-331.

Logan, J., & Messner, S. (1987). Racial residential segregation and suburban violent crime. Social Science Quarterly, 68(3), 510-527.

Logie, R. H., Wright, R., & Decker, S. H. (1992). Recognition memory performance and residential burglary. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6, 109-123.

"This paper reports two studies of recognition memory performance in groups of juvenile residential burglars. Memory performance of the burglars was compared in Experiment 1 with police officers and a group of adult householders. In Experiment 2 a second group of juvenile burglars was compared with a group of juvenile offenders who had no experience of housebreaking. All groups were asked first to identify houses in photographs that would be attractive or otherwise to burglars. Subsequently, subjects were given a surprise recognition test where, in some photographs, physical features of houses was significantly better members of the law-abiding public. In Experiment 2 the juvenile burglars' recognition memory performance was significantly better than the other offenders. These results are interpreted in terms of the burglary subjects possessing a level of expertise associated with their experience of offending."

Longbrake, D., & Clark, D. (1987). Spatial correlates and distribution of reported crime in Denver: 1975-1985. A paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers, Portland.

Lottier, S. (1938). Distribution of criminal offences in sectional regions. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 29.

Loukaitou-Sideris, A. (2000). Hot spots of bus stop crime. Journal of Planning Literature, 14(3), 394-427.

Loukaitou-Sideris, A., Liggett, R., & Iseki, H. (2002). The Geography of Transit Crime: Documentation and Evaluation of Crime Incidence on and around the Green Line Stations in Los Angeles. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 22(2), 135-151.

Lowman, J. (1982). Crime, criminal justice policy and the urban environment. In D. Herbert, & R. Johnston (Eds.), Geography and the Urban Environment: Progress and Research and Applications, Vol. 5. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley.

Lowman, J. (1983). Geography, crime and social control. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Lowman, J. (1986). Conceptual issues in the geography of crime: Toward a geography of social control. Annals of Association of American Geographers, 76(1), 81-94.

Lowman, J. (1986b). Prostitution in Vancouver: Some notes on the genesis of a social problem, Canadian Journal of Criminology, 28(1), 1-16.

Lowman, J. (1989). The geography of social control: Clarifying some themes. In D. Evans & D. Herbert (Eds.), The Geography of Crime. New York: Routledge.

Ludwig, J., Duncan, G. J., & Hirschfield, P. (2001). Urban poverty and juvenile crime: Evidence from a randomized housing-mobility experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(2), 655-679

Luedtke, G., & Associates (1970). Crime and the physical city: Neighborhood design techniques for crime prevention. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.

Lupton, D. (1999). Dangerous places and the unpredictable stranger: constructions of fear of crime. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 32(1), 1-15.

Luymes, D. T., & Tamminga, K. (1995). Integrating public safety and use into planning urban greenways. Landscape and Urban Planning, 33(1-3), 391-400.

Lusher, J. G. (1998). Security the natural way. Journal of Property Management, 63(6).

Lynch, G., & Atkins, S. (1988). The influence of personal security fears on women's travel patterns. Transportation, 15, 275-277.

Lynn, A. Curtis. (1974). Criminal violence: National patterns and behavior. Lexington, MA:  Lexington Books.

Maas, J., Spreeuwenberg, P., Van Winsum-Westra, M., Verheij, R. A., de Vries, S., & Groenewegen, P. P. (2009). Is green space in the living environment associated with people’s feelings of social safety? Environment and Planning, 41(7), 1763-1777.

MacDonald, J. E. (1994). Manipulate design to prevent crime. Hotel & Motel Management, 209(13), 25.

MacDonald, J. E., & Gifford, R. (1989). Territorial cues and defensible space theory: The burglar's point of view. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 9, 193-205.

To test Newman's 'defensible space' theory incarcerated burglars were interviewed as they rated photos taken of residences on "vulnerability". "As the theory predicts, easily surveillable houses were rated as the least vulnerable targets. Contrary to the theory, evidence of territorial concern had no effect...or actually increased vulnerability.

MacLeod, L. (1989). The city for women: No safe place. Ottawa, Canada: Secretary of State Canada for the European & North American Conference of Urban Safety & Crime Prevention.

Maguire, M. (1980). The impact of burglary upon victims. British Journal of Criminology, 20, 261-275.

Maguire, M. (1982). Burglary as opportunity. Home Office Research Unit Bulletin, 10, 6-9.

Maguire, M., & Bennett, T. (1982). Burglary in a dwelling: The offense, the offender, and the victim. London: Heinemann.

Mair, J.S., and Mair M. (2003). Violence Prevention and Control Through Environmental Modifications, Annual Review of Public Health, Vol 24, 209-225, May.

Malt, H. L., & Associates, Inc. (1972). An analysis of public safety as related to the incidence of crime in parks and recreation areas in central cities. (272 pgs.; NTIS No. PB220770).Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

This extensive report remains one of the most detailed examinations of crime in recreation areas to date. Sixteen cities were studied out of the 49 initially contacted. Three categories of parks (sub-neighborhood, neighborhood, community) were examined in each of the cities. City officials and park patrons were queried, and official statistics were compiled. Among the goals of the study were determination of: 1) the primary crime problem(s) facing the parks, 2) which parks were experiencing crime problems, 3) the sources of the problems, and 4) the amounts and types of crimes occurring. Also examined were attitudes of the public. It is worth noting that several of the report's general findings mirror our own findings some twenty-three years later. [Persons wishing to obtain a copy of the report may be forced to contact the library at HUD]

Maltz, M. D., Gordon, A. C., & Friedman, W. (1990). Mapping crime in its community setting: Event geography analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Mambretti, I. (2010). Urban parks between safety and aesthetics: Exploring urban green space using visualisation and conjoint analysis methods. Zurich, Switzerland: Verlag der Fachvereine Hochschulverlag AG an der ETH.

Mann, L., & Hageirk, G. (1971, September). The new environmentalism: Behaviorism and design. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 37(5), 344.

Manning, P. K. (1980). Organization and environment influences on police work. In R.V.G. Clarke & J.M. Hough (Eds.), The Effectiveness of Policing. Westmead, England: Gower.

Mansfield, R., Gould, L., & Namenwirth, Z. (1974). A socioeconomic model for the prediction of societal rates of property theft. Social Forces, 52, 462-472.

Marcuse, P. (1997). The ghetto of exclusion and the fortified enclave: New patterns in the United States.  American Behavioral Scientist, 41, 311–327.

Martin, D. (2002). Spatial patterns in residential burglary: Assessing the effect of neighborhood social capital. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 18, 132-146.

Martin, S. (1994, August). Ripped off: In the time it takes you to read this headline, this man can steal your bike. Bicycling, 41-45.

This article, which discusses means for theft of bicycles with bike thieves, reports briefly on the occurrence of so-called "bike-jackings" in urban recreation areas.

Mather, A. (2002). Base Enclosure. Landscape Architecture, 92(11), 38-44, 102.

This article describes the application of CPTED principles to the Joint Interagency Task Force East (JIATF) site in Florida.  The facility acts as an intelligence center for the U.S. military’s drug interdiction efforts.  While security was not an initial concern when the facility was built in the late 1950’s, a group of students from the University of Florida and professionals were hired to incorporate unassuming countermeasures into the site’s current design.  Specifically, standoff requirements for vehicles were of primary concern.  Natural plants and limestone boulders were used not only as barriers, but to blend the site visually into the surrounding area.  Electronic surveillance, card readers, turnstiles, and other barriers were also implemented.  The site was successfully locked down during the September 11 attacks.

Matthews, R. (1992). Developing more effective strategies for curbing prostitution. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

Mawby, R. I. (1977). Defensible space: A theoretical and empirical appraisal. Urban Studies, 14, 169-179.

The author argues that by oversimplifying the nature of crime and the qualities of defensible space, Newman has failed to consider the possibilities for contradictions within the key elements of the theory that might also threaten security.*

Mawby, R. I. (1979). Policing the city. Farnborough: Saxon House.

Mawby, R. I. (1979b). The victimization of juveniles: A comparative study of three areas of publicly owned housing in Sheffield. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 16(1), 98-113.

Mawby, R. I. (1997). Kiosk vandalism. British Journal of Criminology, 17, 30-46.

Mawby, R. I., & Walklate, S. (1997). The impact of burglary: A tale of two cities. International Review of Victimology, 4(4), 267-295.

Mayhew, P. (1979). Defensible space: The current status of a crime prevention theory. Howard Journal of Penology and Crime Prevention, 18, 150-159.

Mayhew, P. (1984). Target hardening: How much of an answer. In R. Clarke & T. Hope (Eds.), Coping with burglary. Boston, MA: Kluwe-Nijhoff.

Mayhew, P. (1994). Site specific crime analysis: Some relevant British research. In G. Saville (Ed.), Crime Problems, Community Solutions: Environmental Criminology as a Developing Prevention Strategy. Port Moody, BC: AAG Inc. Publications.

Mayhew, P., Clarke, R. V., Burrows, J., Hough, J., & Winchester, S. (1979). Crime in public view (Home Office Research Study No. 49). London: H.M.S.O.

An excellent short monograph assessing the use of surveillance to reduce different types of crime. The authors argue that 'casual' surveillance by the public is generally less effective than surveillance by residents and employees of an environment.*

Mayhew, P., Clarke, R. V., & Elliot, D. (1989). Motorcycle theft, helmet legislation, and displacement. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 28, 1-8.

Mayhew, P., Clarke, R. V., Sturman, A., & Hough, M. (1976). Crime as opportunity (Home Office Research Study No. 34). London: H.M.S.O.

Mayhew, P., Clarke, R. V., Sturman, R., & Hough J. M. (1987). Environmental measures against shop robberies and shop theft. A paper presented at The 39th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Criminology. Montreal.

Mays, V. (2002). Invisible Barriers. Landscape Architecture, 92(11), 74-79.

Mazerolle, L., Kadleck, C., & Roehl, J. (1998). Controlling drug and disorder problems: The role of place managers. Criminology, 36(2), 371-404.

Mazerolle, L., & Terrill, W. (1997). Problem-oriented policing in public housing: Identifying the distribution of problem places. Policing, 20(2), 235-255.

McCarthy, J. D., Galle, O.R., & Zimmerman, W. (1975). Population density, social structure, and interpersonal violence. American Behavioral Scientist, 18, 771-791.

McCaughy, C. H. (1988). [Review of Communities and Crime, by A. J. Reiss & M. Tonry]. Deviant Behavior, 9(4).

McCamley, P. (2002). Minimizing subjectivity: A new risk assessment model for CPTED. The CPTED Journal, 1(1), 255-280.

McCauley, P., & Chalmers, J. (1981). Urban crime rate density analysis for productive resource response. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 9.

McClain, P. (1984). Urban neighborhoods, black residents, and homicide risk. Urban Geography, 5(3).

McCord, E. and J. Ratcliffe (2007). A Micro-spatial Analysis of the Demographic and Criminogenic Environment of Drug Markets in Philadelphia. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology. 50(1), 43-63.

McCormick, M. (1974). Robbery prevention: What the literature reveals--A literature review and annotated bibliography with a list of information sources. La Jolla, CA: Western Behavioral Sciences Institute.

McDonald, A. D., & Newcomer, R. J. (1973). Differences in perception of a city park as a supportive or threatening environment. In D. Gray & D. A. Pelegrino (Eds.), Reflections on the recreation and park movement. Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown Co.

This paper reports on a pilot study which was intended to find out how and in what ways a city park is important, i.e., supportive to its elderly users and to determine why other elderly persons who live in proximity to the park do not use it."

McGahan, P. (1984). Criminogenesis and the urban environment: A case study. Canadian Police College Journal, 6(4), 209-225.

McGahan, P. (1984b). Police imagery of the urban environment. Canadian Police College Journal, 8(2), 107-153.

McInnes, P., Burgess, G., Hann, R., & Axon, L. (1982). The environmental design and management (EDM) approach to crime prevention in residential environments (User Report, No. 1984-84). Ottawa, Canada: Report for the Research Division of the Department of the Solicitor General, Programs Branch.

McIntyre, J. (1967). Public attitudes toward crime and law enforcement. Annals, 374, 34-46.

McKay, T. (1996). The right design for reducing crime. Security and Management, 40(4).

McKay, T. (1998). Security centered around self-respect. Security Management, 42(6), 62-64, 67.

McKay, T. (1998b). What should be CPTED’s next step? Security and Management, 42(12).

McKay, T. (2000). Is CPTED misunderstood? Security Management, 44(10), 128.

McKenzie, J. S., & McKenzie, R. L. (1978). Composing urban spaces for security, privacy and outlook. Landscape Architecture, (September), 392-398.

McNamara, J. (1984). Safe and sane: The sensible way to protect yourself, your loved ones, your property and possessions. New York: Putnam.

McPherson, M. (1978). Realities and perception of crime at the neighborhood level. Victimology, 3, 319-328.

McPheters, L. R., & Stronge, W. B. (1974). Crime as an environmental externality of tourism: Miami, Florida. Land Economics, 50, 288-292.

Mellard, R. (1997). Light to remember. Security Management, 41(7), 38-43.

Meredith, C. (1998). Apartment crime prevention project: Report of research finding. (No.1988-09). Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.

Merry, S. E. (1981). Defensible space undefended: Social factors in crime control through environmental design. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 16, 397-422.

"The notion that crime can be prevented through environmental design is a recent and promising idea emerging from the fields of architecture and urban planning. However, despite intriguing correlation's between crime rates and features of building design, we understand little about the social processes which induce residents to intervene to stop crimes and disorderly behavior in the spaces around them. This article investigates the conditions under which residents of an American inner-city housing project act and fail to act to defend both architecturally defensible and undefensible spaces. Because of the fragmented social fabric, even architecturally defensible spaces here are undefended."**

METRAC (Metro Action Committee on Public Violence Against Women and Children) (1989). Moving forward: Making transit safer for women. Toronto: Toronto Transit Commission, METRAC, and Metro Toronto Police Force.

Michael, S. E. (2002). Plants, CPTED, and Vegetation: A Primer on Planting Design for Law Enforcement.  Landscape Architecture, 92, 24. 

Michael, S. E. (2006). Security design: Strategy, integration and liability (LATIS Series).  Washington, DC: American Society of Landscape Architects. 

Michael, S. E., & Hull, R. B. (1994). Effects of vegetation on crime in urban parks. Interim report for the U.S. Forest Service and the International Society of Arboriculture.

Michael, S. E., Hull, B., & Zahm, D. L. (2001). Environmental factors influencing auto burglary: A case study. Environment and Behavior, 33(3), 368-388.

Michalek, A. (1998). Urban crime in the reflections of sociology and geography: The level of criminality in the towns of Slovak Republic. Sociologia, 30(4), 363-376.

Mieczkowski, T. (1986). Geeking up and throwing down: Heroin street life in Detroit. Criminology, 24, 645-666.

The authors reports an ethnographic study of 15 street-level heroin dealers done over 3 months. Findings relevant to CPTED include that since World War II heroin sales have moved increasingly away from the fixed locations of the "Dope-Pad System" towards "runners" and "crews" dealing on the street. He further found that "the runner systemis designed to market heroin in public places, most typically either at the curbside of public roads or other open locales such as areas in front of shops and stores, playgrounds, parks, and schoolyards (p. 648)." "Stations", or selling positions, were typically on sidewalks or just off of roadways. Planned escapes were found in crews, as were the need for "guns" (i.e., armed crew guards) to be able to "observe and monitor" the surroundings. Further, the surrounding environment was regularly used for caching a stash of drugs and/or money. This latter tactic was also uncovered by Michael and Hull (1994).

Miethe, T. D. (1991). Citizen-based crime control activity and victimization risks: An examination of displacement and free-rider effects. Criminology, 29, 419-440.

Miller, A. (1973). Vandalism and the architect. In C. Ward. (Ed.), Vandalism. London: Acrhitectural Press.  

Miller, E. S. (1981). Bryant Park: A comprehensive evaluation of its image and use with implications for urban open space design. New York: City University of New York, Center for Human Environments.

Miller, E. S. (1981b). Crime threat to land value and neighborhood vitality. In P.J. Brantingham & P.L. Brantingham (Eds.), Environmental criminology (pp. 111-119). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Miller, W. B. (1958). Lower class culture as a generating milieu of gang delinquency. Journal of Social Issues, 14(3), 5-19.

Mills, K. (2000). Crime prevention through environmental design: Public facilities applications and strategies. Security Journal, 7, 109-15.

Ministry of Justice. (1994). Police label safe housing. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Steering Committee Public Housing Experiments.

Minor, W. (1978). Deterrence research: Problems of theory and method. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Law Society Association, Minneapolis, MN.

Moffat, R. (1983). Crime prevention through environmental design – a management perspective. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 25(4), 19-31.

Molumby, T. (unknown). Evaluation of the effect of physical design changes on criminal behavior (Doctoral dissertation), St. Ambrose University.

Molumby, T. (1976). Patterns of crime in a university housing project. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 247-259.

The author of this early work employs spatial analysis to study location of crimes. The study lacks a theoretical basis for conclusions, or hypotheses to test spatial theory. Causes of patterns in the study may reflect some reading into the findings as far as causes of patterns are concerned.

Moore, D. P. (1999) Designing safer schools. School Planning and Management, 38(8), 12.

Moore, G. T. (1979). Knowing about environmental knowing: The current state of theory and research of environmental cognition. Environment and Behavior, 11(1), 33-70.

Moore, M. H., & Trojanowikz, R. C. (1988, November). Policing and the fear of crime. Perspectives on Policing, 3.

Moran, R., & Dolphin, C. (1986). The defensible space concept: Theoretical and operational explication. Environment and Behavior, 18(3), 396-416.

More, T. A. (1985). Central city parks: A behavioral perspective. (Unpublished paper), Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.

The author "monitored the use of two central city parks--one in Boston, one in Hartford--around the clock during the summer of 1978, recording the social characteristics and behaviors of the park users." The result is a unique look into the patterns of use in two urban parks. Included within the study were figures on deviant behavior (e.g., selling marijuana), problem behaviors (e.g., fighting, begging), and other actions which were either unlawful or indicated possible criminal characteristics. The findings suggested "that people's use of public parks can be influenced by the park's landscape." Specific design elements are discussed with regard to their impact on users (e.g., vegetation, pathways, edge effects).

Morenoff, J., Jeffrey, D., & Sampson, R. (1997). Violent crime and the spatial dynamics of neighborhood transition: Chicago, 1970-1990. Social Forces, 76(1), 31-64.

Moriarty, T. (1975). Crime, commitment and the responsive bystander: Two field experiments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 370-376.

Morris, T. P. (1958). The criminal area. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

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Müderrisoglu, H., & Demir, Z. (2004). The relationship between perceived beauty and safety in urban recreation parks. Journal of Applied Sciences, 4, 72-77.

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Munford, R. S., Kazer, R. S., Feldman, R. A., & Stevens, R. R. (1976). Homicide trends in Atlanta. Criminology, 14(2), 213-232.

Murdie, R., & Saville, G. (1988). The spatial analysis of motor vehicle theft: A case study of Peel Region. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 16(2), 125-134.

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Murphy, P. M. (2000). Grounds for protection. Security Management, 44(10), 84.

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Myhre, M., & Rosso, F. (1996). Designing for security in Meteor: A projected new metro line in Paris. In R.V. Clarke (Ed.), Preventing Mass Transit Crime (pp. 199-216). Newark, NJ: Marina L. Myhre School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University.

Nager, A. R., & Wenworth, W. R. (1976). Bryant Park: A comprehensive evaluation of its image and use with implications for urban open space design. New York: City University of New York, Center for Human Environments.

Nair, G., Ditton, J., & Phillips, S. (1933). Environmental improvements and the fear of crime. British Journal of Criminology, 33(4), 555-561.

Napier, M., Du Plessis, C., Liebermann, S., Kruger, T., Shaw, M., Louw, A., & Oppler, S. (1998). Environmental Design for Safer Communities in South Africa, 1 and 2. Pretoria: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.

Nasar, J. L. (1982). A model relating visual attributes in the residential environment to fear of crime. Journal of Environmental Systems, 11, 247-255.

Nasar, J. L., & Fisher, B. S. (1992). Design for vulnerability: Cues and reactions to fear of crime. Sociology and Social Research, 76, 48-58.

The authors describe physical environment cues that may affect the public's fear of crime. In the process they developed a theory regarding the relationship between these cues, fear, and consequent reactions. The study examined the physical environment of university campuses. Cues that heightened fear were: "poor prospect for the passerby due to inadequate lighting, blocked escape for the passerby, and concealment for the offender". Responses to cues and fear were also recorded. The study's results are consistent with recent findings that suggest that informed design of micro-level physical settings and their features may be an effective means for deterring criminals. Consequently, the authors suggest that it may also be effective at reducing fear. As this and other studies point out, although fear may not be an adequate predictor of crime, it has salient negative consequences that effect people even in the absence of experienced crime. Article includes photographs and site plans of the study areas.

Nasar, J. L., & Fisher, B. S. (1993). "Hot spots" of fear and crime: A multi-method investigation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 187-206.

This study takes a different slant on examining the geography of crime. It differentiates between macro and micro-level site characteristics, examining how the latter may contribute to concentrated areas of crime, or 'hot spots'. Although this article does not offer the first investigation of hot spots, it does provide the most thorough discussion to date. Prospect, concealment and boundedness were the proximate cues studied, with female college students and campus police serving as subjects. Fear was also examined on the same levels. "Hot spots of fear and crime converged at the micro level. Both fear and crime increased in areas characterized by low prospect, high concealment, and high boundedness." Design measures are discussed regarding micro level deterrence (e.g., lighting, vegetation maintenance, cameras).

Nasar, J. L., Fisher, B. S., & Grannis, M. (1993). Proximate physical cues to fear of crime. In J. L. Nasar (Ed.), Landscape and urban planning: Special issue on urban design research, 26, 161-178.

Nasar, J. L., & Jones, K. (1997). Landscapes of rear and stress. Environment and Behavior, 29, 291-323.

Nasar, J. L., & Julian, D. (1995). The psychological sense of community in the neighborhood. Journal of the American Planning Association, 61(2), 178-184.

Nasar, J. L., Julian, D., Buchman, S., Humphreys, D., & Mrohaly, M. (1983). The emotional quality of scenes and observation points: A look at prospect and refuge. Landscape Planning, 10, 355-361.

Natarajan, M., Clarke, R. V., & Belanger, M. (1996). Drug dealing and pay phones: The scope for intervention. Security Journal, 7(4), 245-251.

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National Crime Prevention Institute. (1986). Understanding crime prevention. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

National Institute of Justice (1996). The expanding role of crime prevention through environmental design in premises liability. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.

Nee, C., & Taylor, M. (1988). Residential burglary in the Republic of Ireland: A situational perspective. The Howard Journal, 27, 105-116.

Neiburg, H. (1974). Crime prevention by urban design. Society, 12, 41-47.

Nelson, J. F. (1979). Implications for the ecological study of crime: A research note. In W.H. Parsonage (Ed.), Perspectives on Victimology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Newman, O. (1969). Physical parameters of defensible space, past experience and hypotheses. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Newman, O. (1972). Defensible space: Crime prevention through urban design. New York: Macmillan.

The original publication of this book in 1972 changed the nature of the crime prevention and environmental design field. The book details and describes the 'defensible space' theory, and includes extensive discussion of crime and the physical form of housing based on crime data analysis from New York City public housing.*

Newman, O. (1972b). Defensible space: People and design in the violent city. London: Architectural Press.

Newman, O. (1973). Architectural design for crime prevention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Newman, O. (1973b). A design for improving residential security. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Newman, O. (1976). Design guidelines for creating defensible spaces. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

This handbook examines how different social, physical, managerial, and economic factors combine to produce secure housing. Other chapters cover the evolution of multi-family housing, design guidelines for buildings, site planning guidelines, two prototypical designs, and discussions regarding security hardware.*

Newman, O. (1996). Creating defensible space. Washington, DC: U.S. HUD.

Newman, O., & Frank, K. (1980). Factors influencing crime and instability in urban housing developments. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, LEAA, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Newman, O., & Frank, K. (1982). The effects of building size on personal crime and fear of crime. Population and Environment, 5, 203-220.

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Normandeau, A. (1969). Robbery in Philadelphia and London. British Journal of Criminology, 9.

Normandeau, A. (1970). Canadian criminal statistics: Not again! Canadian Journal of Corrections, 12, 198.

Normandeau, A., & Schwartz, B. (1971). A crime classification of American Metropolitan Areas. Criminology, 9.

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Page, R. A., & Moss, M. K. (1976). Environmental influences on aggression: The effects of darkness and proximity of victim. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 126-133.

This brief paper offers support for the authors' predictions concerning the relationship between lighting and aggression. In a somewhat unusual test, subjects' willingness to punish fellow participants via an electrical shock system (which offered varying magnitudes of current) was monitored as contact with the 'victim' was decreased via lighting and physical proximity. Shocks tended to be more powerful and lasted longer when rooms were more dimly lit. These findings, if found to be sound, could expand the theoretical support to the age old belief that lit areas are safer.

Pain, R. (1991) Space, sexual violence and social control: Integrating geographical and feminist analyses of women's fear of crime. Progress­ in Human Geography, 15(4), 415-431.

Painter, K. A. (1988). Lighting and crime prevention: The Edmonton Project, London. Middlesex: Center for Criminology, Middlesex Polytechnic.

Painter, K. A. (1991). The West Park Estate Survey: An evaluation of public lighting as a crime prevention strategy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Painter, K. A. (1992). Different worlds: The spatial, temporal and social dimensions of female victimization. In D. J. Evans, N. R. Fyfe and D. T. Herbert (Eds.), Crime, policing and place: Essays in environmental criminology (pp. 164-195). New York: Routledge.

Painter, K. A (1994). Street lighting as an environmental crime prevention strategy. D. Zahm & P. Cromwell (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Seminar on Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis (pp. 95-110). Coral Gables, FL: Florida Statistical Analysis Center, Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute.

Painter, K. A., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Improved street lighting: crime reducing effects and cost-benefit analyses. Security Journal,12(1), 17-32.

Painter, K. A., & Farrington, D. P. (2001). Evaluating situational crime prevention using a young people’s survey. British Journal of Criminology, 41(2), 266-284.

Painter, K. A., & Farrington, D. P. (2001b). The financial benefits of improved street lighting based on crime reduction. Lighting Research Technology, 33(1), 3–12.

Painter, K. D., & Bainbridge. (1992). The impact of public lighting on crime, fear of crime and quality of life: A study of the Moseley, Showell Green area of Birmingham. Cambridge: Aston Business School, University of Cambridge.

Painter, Kate and Tilley, Nick. Eds. (1999). Surveillance of Public Space: CCTV, Street Lighting and Crime Prevention. Crime Prevention Studies. Volume 10. Criminal Justice Press. Monsey, NY.

Park, R., Burgess, E., & McKenzie, R. (1942). The city. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Parker, J. (Winter 2001). Reducing crime through urban design. The Journal of the Designing Out Crime Association, 16-18.

Pascoe T. (1997). CPTED a risk management tool for the future. A paper presented at the 2nd International CPTED Conference. Orlando, FL.

Pascoe T. (1998). Crime auditing & analysis: Strategies for the Crime & Disorder Bill. A paper presented at The BRE National Conference. London.

Pascoe, T. (1999). Predicting the targets of household burglars: Developing risk-based models from a case study of recent experience in Redditch. (Doctoral dissertation). Cranfield University, London.

Pascoe, T., & Topping, P. (Spring/Summer 1997). Secure by design: Assessing the basis of the scheme. International Journal of Risk, Security and Crime Prevention.

Paternoster, R., Saltzman, L., Chiricos, T., & Waldo, G. (1982). Perceived risk and deterrence: Methodological artifacts in perceptual deterrence research. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 73, 1238-1258.

Patterson, A. H. (1975). Crowding, crime, and the designed environment: A social control perspective. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Meeting.

Patterson, A. H. (1976). Housing type, territorial behavior, and fear of crime in the elderly. In D. Conway (Ed.), Designing for the elderly. Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects.

Patterson, A. H. (1977). Territorial behavior and fear of crime in the elderly. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University.

Patterson, A. H. (1978). Crime and fear among the elderly: The role of the physical environment. Crime prevention through environmental design compendium. Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National Issues Center.

Patterson, A. H. (1978b). Territorial behavior and fear of crime in the elderly. Environmental Behaviour and Non-verbal Behaviour, 2, 131-144.

Paulsen, D. J. (2003). Mapping in Mayberry: Major issues in the implementation of GIS in small and rural law enforcement agencies. In M. Leipnik and D. Albert (Eds.), GIS in law enforcement: Implementation issues and case studies. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Payne, J., Braunstein, M., & Carroll, J. (1978). Exploring predecisional behavior: An alternative approach to decision research. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 22, 17-44.

Peach, C. (1975). The spatial analysis of ethnicity and class. In C. Peach (Ed.), Urban Social Segregation. London: Longman.

Pease. K. (1991). The Kirkholt Project: Preventing burglary on a British Public Housing Estate. Security Journal, d2, 73-77.

Pease, K. (1992). Preventing burglary on a British public housing estate. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. New York: Harrow & Heston.

Pease, K., & Laycock, G. (1996). Revictimization: Reducing the heat on hot victims. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, NIJ.

Peet, R. (1975). The geography of crime: A political critique. Professional Geographer, 27(3), 277.

Peet, R. (1976). Further comments on the geography of crime. Professional Geographer, 28, 96.

Peiser, R. (1997). Real estate development and crime prevention needs. In M. Felson & R.V. Clarke (Eds.), Business and Crime Prevention. (pp. 231-248). Monsey, NY : Criminal Justice Press.

Pepinsky, H. (1987). Explaining police-recorded crime trends in Sheffield. Contemporary Crises, 11(1), 59-73.

Perigut, D. (1983). Vandalism: The environmental crime. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 18(3), 209.

Perkins, D. D., Meeks, J. W., & Taylor, R. B. (1992). The physical environment of street blocks and resident perceptions of crime and disorder: Implications of theory and measurement. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 21-34.

With data based on over 400 subject interviews, the authors developed and tested both a procedure and an instrument to assess "crime- and fear-related features" of the urban residential settings. Various cues were examined (i.e., symbols of social and physical disorder, territorial functioning, and architectural 'defensible space' features) while, theoretically, the 'disorder' thesis, which suggests that residents' confidence in their neighborhood will be negatively impacted by physical incivilities, was tested, with support being found for it. Their findings are in agreement with many others. The authors point out that an important next step is to isolate "exactly what aspects of the environment most affect resident perceptions and what the nature of those perceptions are."

Perkins, D. D., Wandersman, A., Rich, R., & Taylor, R. (1992). The physical environment of street crime: Defensible space, territoriality and incivilities. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13(1), 29-49.

Perlgut, D. (1983). Vandalism: The environmental crime. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 18, 209-216.

Because it is committed against physical objects and because physical design and setting play an important role, vandalism is the ultimate 'environmental' crime. Often misunderstood by designers, planners, facility managers, and administrators, vandalism can be more effectively controlled through an understanding of the patterns and environmental context in which it occurs. Social situations conducive to vandalism are discussed, e.g., unstable neighborhoods, insensitive school administrators and teachers, and workplaces with rapid staff turnover. S. Cohen's typology of vandalism and methods for preventing or controlling it ('Campaigning against vandalism.' In Vandalism, edited by C. Ward. London: Architectural Press, 1973) are described.*

Perry, K. (1984). Measuring the effectiveness of neighborhood crime watch. Law and Order, 32, 37-40.

Perry, M. J. (1983, September). Strategies for combating crime in the parks. Parks and Recreation.

Pesce, E. J., Kohn, I. R., & Kaplan, H. M. (1978, July). Crime prevention through environmental design: Final report, phases II and III, July 1976-1978. Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National Issues Center.

Petersen, E. (1977). A reassessment of the concept of criminality: An analysis of criminal behavior in terms of individual and current environment interaction. New York, NY: Halstead Press.

Petersilia, J. (1987). Other technical research: Architectural design for crime prevention. The influence of product-oriented research. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Ptersilia, J., Greenwood, P., & Lavin, M. (1977). Criminal careers of habitual felons. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Peterson, M., Braiker, H., & Polich, S. (1981). Who commits crimes: A survey of prison inmates. Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain.

Pettiway, L. E. (1982). Mobility of robbery and burglary offenders: Ghetto and nonghetto spaces. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 18, 255-270.

Pettiway, L. E. (1985). The internal structure of the ghetto and the criminal commute. Journal of Black Studies, 16(2), 189-211.

Pettiway, L. E., Dolinsky, S., & Grigoryan, A. (1994). The drug and criminal activity patterns of urban offenders: A Markov chain analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 10, 79-107.

Phelan, G. F. (1977, November). Testing 'academic' notions of architectural design for burglary prevention: How burglars perceive cures of vulnerability in suburban complexes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Atlanta, GA.

Phillips, G. H., Kreps, G. M., & Moody, C. W. (1976, November). Environmental factors in rural crime (Research Rep. No. 224). Wooster, OH: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

Phillips, P. D. (1973). Risk-related crime rates and crime patterns. Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers, 5, 221-224.

Phillips, P. D. (1973b). The geography of crime. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Minnesota Geography Department, Minneapolis.

Phillips, S., & Cochrane, R. (1988). Crime and nuisance in the shopping centre (Crime Prevention Unit. Paper 16). London: Home Office Crime Prevention Unit.

Pierson, S. P. (1996). Design decisions for bicycle parking and security that works. Landscape Architect & Specifier News, 12, 28-29.

Piombini, M. (1987). Crime prevention through environmental design: The status and prospects for CPTED in British Columbia. (MA thesis), University of British Columbia.

Planning Services Dept., Merton Civic Centre. (1994). Designing out crime. Morden, Surrey (SM4 5DX ). London, Morden, Surrey: Borough, M.

Plaster, S., & Carter, S. (1993). Planning for prevention: Sarasota, Florida's approach to crime prevention through environmental design. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute, Florida Department of Law Enforcement.

Plaster, S., & Carter, S. (2002). Community CPTED. The CPTED Journal, 1(1), 15-24.

Plaster-Carter, S., Carter, S., & Dannenberg, A. (2003). Zoning out crime and improving community health in Sarasota, Florida: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1442–1445.

Podolefsky, A. (1983). Case studies in community crime prevention. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Podolefsky, A., & Dubow, F. (1983). Strategies for community crime prevention: Collective responses to crime in urban America. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Polk, K. (1957). Juvenile delinquency and social areas. Social Problems, 5, 214-217.

Polk, K. (1967). Urban social areas and delinquency. Social Problems, 14, 320-325.

Pollack, L., & Patterson, A. (1979). Territorial behavior and fear of crime among the elderly and non-elderly. Journal of Social Psychology.

Pope, C. E. (1977). Crime-specific analysis: An empirical examination of burglary offender characteristics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Pope, C. E. (1977b). Crime-specific analysis: The characteristics of burglary incident. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Pope, C. E. (1980). Patterns in burglary: An empirical examination of offense and offender characteristics. Journal of Criminal Justice, 8, 39-51.

Postlewaite, S. (2004). Can ‘over lighting’ increase the fear of crime? The CPTED Journal, 3(1), 37-45.

Poveda, T. (1972). The fear of crime in a small town. Crime and Delinquency, 18, 147-153.

Poyner, B. (1980). A study of street attacks and their environmental settings. London: The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations.

Poyner, B. (1981). Crime prevention and the environment: Street attacks in city centres. Police Research Bulletin, 37, 10-18.

Poyner, B. (1983). Design against crime: Beyond defensible space. Stoneham, MA: Butterworths Publishing Co.

Poyner, B. (1991). Situational crime prevention in two parking facilities. Security Journal. 2, 96-101.

Poyner, B. (1992). Situational crime prevention in two parking facilities. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies (pp. 99-107). New York: Harrow & Heston.

            This study chronicles the introduction of crime deterrence measures in two parking areas. Recognizing that theft of autos and thefts from autos require different preventative measures, the author examined changes in each type of crime. The author suggests that adequate surveillance, either formal or informal, is the most important measure which can be taken in attempting to reduce offenses. Design solutions are offered for proactive and reactive attempts to secure parking areas, including parking structures.

Poyner, B. (1992b), Video cameras and bus vandalism. In R.V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. New York, NY: Harrow and Heston.

Poyner, B. (1994). Lessons from Lisson Green: An evaluation of walkway demolition on a British housing estate. In R.V.G. Clarke (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies (pp. 127-151). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Poyner, B. (1998). The case for design. In M. Felson & R. Peiser (Eds.), Reducing Crime through Real Estate Development and Management (pp. 5-21). Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.

Poyner, B., & Webb, B. (1987). Successful crime prevention: Case studies. London: Tavistock Institute of Human Relations.

Poyner, B., & Webb, B. (1991). Crime free housing. Oxford, UK: Butterworth.

Poyner, B., & Woodall, R. (1987). Preventing shoplifting: A study in Oxford Street. London: Police Foundation.

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Pyle, G. F. (1976). Geographic perspectives on crime and the impact of anticrime legislation. In J.S. Adams (Ed.), Urban Policymaking and Metropolitan Dynamics. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Pyle, G. F. (1976b). The spatial and temporal aspects of crime in Cleveland, Ohio. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 175-198.

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Rainwater, L. (1967). The lessons of Pruitt-Igoe. The Public Interest, 8, 175-198.

Ramsay, M. (1982). City-centre crime: The scope for situational prevention (Paper 10). London: Home Office, Research and Planning Unit.

Ramsay, M. (1991). A British experiment in curbing incivilities and fear of crime. Security Journal, 2, 120-125.

Ramsay, M., & Newton, R. (1991). The effect of better street lighting on crime and fear: A review (Crime Prevention Unit Paper 29). London: Home Office.

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Ratcliffe, J. (2006). A temporal constraint theory to explain opportunity-based spatial offending patterns. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43(3), 261-91.

Ratcliffe, J., & McCullagh, M. (1998). Aoristic crime analysis. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 12(7), 751-752.

Rau, M. (2006). Civic safety and residential urban space: Natural surveillance and community appropriation limits. The CPTED Journal, 2(1), 39-42.

Ray, J. (1971). Crime prevention through environmental design. Hollywood, CA: Sage Publications.

Reinier, G., Hobart, et al. (1977). Crime analysis in support of patrol. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, NILEC.

Reisman, D. (1957). The suburban dislocation. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 314, 123-146.

Reiss, A. J. (1971). Place of residence of arrested persons compared with the place where the offense charged in arrest. A report to President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Reiss, A. J. (1978). Environmental determinants of victimization by crime and its control: Offenders and victims. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Compendium. Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National Issues Center.

Reiss, A. J. (1983). Crime control and the quality of life. American Behavioral Scientist, 27, 43-58.

(The) author investigates the association of social and environmental variables and criminal activity by comparing geographical areas of a country or communities and neighborhoods within a city. He approaches the subject in terms of considering the quality of life in communities undergoing change. Identifies a number of critical criminogenic factors: (1) location of offenders relative to their victims, (2) attractiveness of communities to offenders, (3) offender awareness of criminal opportunities, (4) offender case of entry and egress of communities to be victimized, (5) mixed land use, (6) the location of certain legal and illegal businesses.*

Reiss, A. J., & Rhodes, A. L. (1961). The distribution of juvenile delinquency in the social class structure. American Sociological Review, 26, 720-732.

Reiss, A. J., & Tonry, M. (Eds.). (1986). Communities and crime. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Rengert, G. (1975b). Some effects of being female on criminal spatial behavior. The Pennsylvania Geographer, 13, 10-18.

Rengert, G. (1980). Spatial aspects of criminal behavior. In D. Georges-Abeyie & K. Harris (Eds.), Crime: A spatial perspective (pp. 47-57). New York: Columbia University Press.

Rengert, G. (1987). Spatial learning and the criminal use of space. A paper presented at The 39th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Criminology. Montreal.

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This study included 299 women from metropolitan cities around the United States. The authors identified a pair of precautionary actions used by women: "avoiding dangerous situations and managing risks in the face of possible danger." Fear, perceived physical competence, race and education were found to be strong predictors of avoidance. Proximal physical cues which indicate danger or decay (e.g., vandalism) were found to prompt risk-management more so than do general crime rates. This ties in with micro-environment findings and 'hot spot' research which suggest that individuals react to a given situation rather than to regional or community crime patterns.

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This piece broke new ground as it exploring the following three objectives: "1) to determine whether judgments of personal safety in urban recreation sites show sufficient reliability to be usefully studied, 2) to use such judgments to identify park design features affecting perception of security in urban parks, and 3) to identify the relations between visibility, perceived security, and perceived attractiveness of urban parks." Findings showed "...high security is associated with open areas with long view distances and with signs of development and nearby populated areas. On the other hand, high scenic quality depends on the presence of natural vegetation....and is lowered by manmade features." Unfortunately, little similar research has been done thus far to further explore these important findings.

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This study finds support for the ecological theory that when offenders, targets and a lack of guardians converge a criminal event results. Over 300,000 calls to police in Minneapolis were compared with addresses to which responses were made. It was found that some 50% of the calls came from only 3% of the places. These locations, termed 'hot spots', have been dealt with in a variety of manners, some of which the authors discuss. They suggest that, although eradication of crime settings (e.g., crack houses) and of routine activities of criminals (e.g., bars) will not remove crime, regulating the "routine activities of places may be regulated far more easily than the routine activities of persons."

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This article compares traditional security features such as planters, bollards, and turnstiles with electronic surveillance methods such as Charged Coupled Discharge cameras, thermal imaging, and digital image fusion (a combination of night-vision and thermal imaging). The article suggests that biometrics constitute the highest level of security because they are based on unique physiological or behavioral characteristics.  For example, the U.S. Department of Defense is researching mathematical patterns which identify people by the way they walk. 

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This article examines a variety of crimes on public transportation.  It makes the distinction between crimes committed due to overcrowding and those which occur under lack of supervision.  It postulates that crime can be “designed out” of public transportation. 

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Stevens, O. (May/June 1987). Lighting design: A primary consideration in crime prevention and detection. Canadian Security, 22-24.

Stevens, O. (July/August 1987). Lighting design II: How to protect against vandals and provide safety for guards. Canadian Security, 32-34.

Stevens, O. (September/October 1987). Lighting design III: Providing security and safety for walkways and parking areas. Canadian Security, 18-21.

Stevens, P., & Willis, C. F. (1979). Race, crime and arrests (Home Office Research Study, No. 58). London: HMSO.

Stewart, J., & McKenzie, R. L. (1978). Composing urban spaces for security, privacy and outlook. Landscape Architecture, 78, 392-398.

"This article examines the self-reported target techniques of 61 sexual offenders incarcerated in a maximum custody prison. Respondents were interviewed using a methodology employing other convicted felons as interviewers. The data lend support for a rational choice perspective revealing predatory rapists as decision makers since they largely attack females whom they perceive as vulnerable."** Although the article does not deal specifically with influence of the physical environment, quotes from rapists do describe the use of settings. The author discusses the use of manipulation as opposed to circumstance in rapes occurring in opportune situations. The split between the two was almost 50/50, and the interpretation is that vulnerability, whether signaled by victim behavior or by physical isolation, is of paramount importance to rapists.

Stoks, F. G. (1982). Assessing urban public space environments for danger of violent crime-especially rape. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Washington, Seattle: Ann Arbor, MI.

"This dissertation is an investigation of how physical design characteristics affect microspatial patterns of violent crime, especially rape in urban public places. A review of crime specific literature, spatial literature on crime and crime prevention literature finds that over a third of all violent crime occurs in urban public places, but little is known about the precise location or characteristics of the crime sites, or of conclusive effects of the physical environment on crime prevention.

Police incident reports were used to obtain data on 40 variables for 590 cases of rape occurring in Seattle during 1981. Data analysis of 20 variables provided evidence of external validity of the Seattle sample when compared with the results of several other studies. The remaining variables describe the spatial distribution of rape in Seattle. The sites of 65 of these cases, which occurred in urban public places, were inventoried using a checklist of 42 environmental variables derived in part from crime prevention literature and from an earlier pilot study. A series of linear discriminant analyses of this data showed that a set of six environmental variables affecting the offender's control over the victim, had statistical significance in discriminating between the sites of attempted and completed rape. These variables and their associated weights, in linear equation form, comprise a model for predicting precisely where rapes are likely to occur in urban public places. This model is refined to facilitate calculating the probability that a completed rape will occur for a given urban public place. Five applications of the model to urban public places in which rapes had occurred, led to successful prediction of the precise location of four of the actual rape sites - an outcome shown to be highly unlikely the result of chance alone. Applications of the findings and of the model for urban planning and urban design, are discussed in terms of how to make existing environments safer, or to design new environments to be safe. The appendices contain detailed frequency tables on all 82 of the variables surveyed."**

Stoks, F. G. (1982b). Assessing urban public space environments for danger of violent crime-especially rape. In D. Joiner, G. Brimikombe, J. Daish, J. Gray & D. Kernohan (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on People and Physical Environment Research (pp. 331-342). Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Ministry of Works and Development.

Storey, K. (1991, July). The safety of public open spaces: Three arguments for design. Landscape Architectural Review, 13-15.

Stollard, P. (1991). Crime prevention through housing design. London: Chapman and Hall.

Struder, R. G. (1978). Behavior technology and the modification of criminal behavior through environmental design and management: Crime prevention through environmental design theory compendium. Arlington, VA: Westinghouse National Issues Center.

Stubbs, D. (2002). Cul-de-sac and blind footpaths: Academic Research Foundation. The Journal of the Designing Out Crime Association (DOCA), Summer.

Sturman, A. (1980). Damage on busses: The effects of supervision. In R.V.G. Clarke & P. Mayhew (Eds.), Designing Out Crime. London: HMSO.

Stummvoll, G. (2004). Design against crime in Vienna: A feminist approach. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 6(4), 71-82.

Sundeen, R. A., & Mathieu, J. T. (1976). The urban elderly: Environments of fear. In J. Goldsmith & S.S. Goldsmith (Eds.), Crime and the elderly. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Sutherland, E. (1937). The professional thief. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sutherland, E., & Cressey, D. (1970). Criminology-8th Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

Talbot, J. F., & Kaplan, R. (1984). Needs and fears: The response to trees and nature in the inner city. Journal of Arboriculture, 10, 222-228.

Tanaka, J. (1984). Spatial pattern of urban crime occurrences and urban activities in Osaka City: Static and Time Serial Analysis, Human Geography, 36(2).

Tarlow, P. E. (2001). A site to see. Security Management, 48(8), 48.

Taub, R. R., Taylor, D., & Dunham, J. D. (1984). Paths of neighborhood change: Race and crime in urban America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Taylor, I. (1996). Fear of crime, urban fortunes and suburban social movements: Some reflections from Manchester. Sociology, 30(2), 317-337.

Taylor, M., & Nee, C. (1988). The role of cues in simulated residential burglary: A preliminary investigation. British Journal of Criminology, 28, 396-401.

This study in the Republic of Ireland compared perceptions of burglars and householders using "free responding" to a simulated residential setting (using slides and map), effectively allowing subjects to "move through the simulated environment". Introduced is the concept of "vulnerability". Significant differences were found between the two subject groups, particularly with respect to intra-group response homogeneity, awareness of vulnerabilities, and 'route' of exploration taken, the burglars moving in a more systematic manner.

Taylor, R. B. (1982). The neighborhood physical environment and stress. In G. W. Evans (Ed.), Environmental Stress. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Taylor, R. B. (1988). Human territorial functioning. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Taylor, R. B. (1989). Towards an environmental psychology of disorder: Delinquency, crime, and fear of crime. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 2). New York: John Wiley.

Taylor, R. B. (1996). Neighborhood responses to disorder and local attachments: The Systemic Model of attachment, social disorganization, and neighborhood use value. Sociological Forum, 11(1), 41-74.

Taylor, R. B. (1997). Social order & disorder of street blocks and neighborhoods. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 34(1), 113-155.

Taylor, R. B. (2001). Breaking away from broken windows: Evidence from Baltimore neighborhoods and the nationwide fight against crime, grime, fear, and decline. New York, NY: Westview Press.

Taylor, R. B. (2002) Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED); Yes, no, maybe, unknowable, and all of the above. In Bechtel, R. (Ed.). Handbook of Environmental Psychology. New York: John Wiley.

Taylor, R. B., & Covington, J. (1988). Neighborhood changes in ecology and violence. Criminology, 26, 533-589.

Taylor, R. B., & Gottfredson, S. D. (1986). Environmental design, crime and prevention: An examination of community dynamics. Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, 8, 387-416.

Taylor, R. B., & Gottfredson, S. D. (1986b). Environmental design, crime, and prevention: An examination of community dynamics. In A. Reiss & M. Tonry (Eds.), Communities and Crime (pp. 387-416). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Taylor, R. B., & Gottfredson, S. D. (1986c). Environmental design, crime and prevention: An examination of community dynamics. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 8. New York: Academic Press.

Taylor, R. B., Gottfredson, S. D., & Brower, S. (1980). The defensibility of defensible space: A critical review. In T. Hirschi & M. Gottfredson (Eds.), Understanding crime. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Taylor, R. B., Gottfredson, S. D., & Brower, S. (1981). Territorial cognitions and social climate in urban neighborhoods. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 2, 289-303.

Taylor, R. B., Gottfredson, S. D., & Brower, S. (1984). Block crime and fear: Defensible space, local social ties, and territorial functioning. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21, 303-331.

This study utilized a model that included the factors mentioned in its title to investigate why some blocks have more incidents of crime, or higher fear levels, than do other blocks."(Their) model explained significant portions of crimes of violence to persons (18%) and block fear (37%)....(and)...variation in individual-level fear."

Taylor, R. B., Shumaker, S. A., & Gottfredson, S. (1985). Neighborhood-level links between physical features and local sentiments: Deterioration, fear of crime, and confidence. Journal of Architecture and Planning Research, 2, 261-275.

This study attempts "...to understand some of the roles that the physical environment may play at the neighborhood level...The results disconfirm some broad-gauged theories about neighborhood-level physical impacts that have been proposed."

Taylor, R. B., & Stough, R. (1978). Territorial cognition: Assessing Altman's typology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 418-423.

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Thomas, C., & Hyman, J. (1977). Perceptions of crime, fear of victimization, and public perceptions of police performance. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 5, 305-317.

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Thouez, J. P. (1979). Espace social et criminalite: Le cas d'une ville de taille Moyenne, Sherbrooke. Cahiers De Geographie Du Quebec, 23, 357-370.

Tien, J. M., O'Donnell, U. F., Barnett, A., & Mirchandani, P. B. (1979). Street lighting projects. National Evaluation Program Phase 1 Report. Washington D.C.: National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, Government Printing Office.

Tiffany, W. D., & Ketchel, J. M. (1979). Psychological deterrence in robberies of banks and its application to other institutions. In J. J. Kramer (Ed.), The role of behavioral sciences in physical security. National Bureau of Standards.

Tijerino, R. (1988). Civil spaces: a critical perspective of defensible space. Journal of Architectural Planning Research, 15(4), 321-337.

Tilley, N. (1991).Opportunity knocks! Crime prevention and the safer cities story. A paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Social Policy Association, Nottingham.

Tilley, N. (1993). Crime prevention and the safer cities story. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 32(1), 40.

Tilley, N. (1993b). Understanding car parks, crime and CCTV: Evaluation lessons from safer cities (Crime Prevention Unit Series Paper 42). London: HMSO.

Tilley, N., & Webb, J. (1994). Burglary reduction: Findings from safer cities schemes. (Crime Prevention Unit Paper 51). Home Office, London: Home Office.

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Tittle, C., & Paternoster, R. (1988). Geographic mobility and criminal behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25(3), 301-343.

Titus, R. (1980). Social networks, informal social control behaviors, and crime prevention (Summary Paper on Future Research Options). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

Titus, R. (1982). Citizen and environmental crime prevention. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, LEAA, U.S. Government Printing Office.

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Wagner, A. (1997). A study of traffic pattern modifications in an urban crime prevention program. Journal of Criminal Justice, 25(1), 19-30.

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            Greenwood Publishing.

Waller, I., & Okihiro, N. (1978). Burglary: The victim and the public. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

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This handbook is an operational presentation of crime prevention through environmental design. (It) discusses methods of designing or redesigning buildings and neighborhoods to reduce crime and the fear of crime.

Wallis, A., & Ford, D. (Eds.). (1980b). Crime prevention through environmental design: The commercial demonstration in Portland, OR. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Describes an attempt to reduce crime and fear in a particular setting (Portland, OR) by reducing criminal opportunity while simultaneously fostering positive social interaction.* This report is lengthy and was not conclusive in its support of the theory in question. Rather, it recommended further testing.

Wallis, C. P., & Maliphant, R. (1967). Delinquent areas in the county of London: Ecological factors. British Journal of Criminology, 7(3), 250-284.

Walsh, D. P. (1978). Shoplifting: Controlling a major crime. London: Macmillan.

Walsh, D. P. (1980). Break-ins: Burglary from private houses. London: Constable.

Walsh, D. P. (1986). Victim selection procedures among economic criminals: The rational choice perspective. In D. Cornish & R. V. Clarke (Eds.), The reasoning criminal (pp. 38-56). New York: Springer-Verlag.

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Ward, C. (1991). Notes of a vandal-watcher. Town and Country Planning, 60(8), 232-234.

This book is intended for 'all those who earn a living by modifying and maintaining the environment.' The book is more than just a design guide for architects, planners, managers, and engineers; its collected articles constitute one of the best surveys of the physical, social, criminological, and political aspects of vandalism. Contributions are organized in four parts: the 'social background', the 'designer's responsibility', 'vandals with power', and 'coping with vandalism.' *

Warr, M. (1980). The accuracy of public beliefs about crime. Social Forces, 59, 456-470.

Warr, M. (1982). The accuracy of public beliefs about crime: Further evidence. Criminology, 20, 185-204.

Warr, M. (1984). Fear of victimization: Why are women and the elderly more afraid? Social Science Quarterly, 65, 681-702.

Warr, M. (1985). Fear of rape among urban women. Social Problems, 32, 238-250.

Warr, M. (1988). Rape, burglary, and opportunity. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 4, 275--288.

Warr, M. (1990). Dangerous situations: Social context and fear of victimization. Social Forces, 68, 891-907.

The author investigates how people perceive cues and signs which alert them to danger. Night, or darkness, novelty of the situation, and being alone (vs others who might offer assistance being present) were examined. They were found not to be frightening because of what they are, but because of what they represent. Thus, "they are signs of frightening things". Interestingly, presence of others can have distinctly different effects. The author found that depending upon who the 'others' are, their presence can have a reassuring or an alarming affect. This work warrants further investigation by those interested in the perceptions and reactions of the public, particularly women.

Warren, J., Reboussin, R., Hazelwood, R., Cummings, A., Gibbs, N., & Trumbetta, S. (1998). Crime scene and distance correlates of serial rape. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 14(1), 35-59.

Washnis, G. (1977). Citizen involvement in crime prevention. Lexington, KY: Lexington Books.

Weatherburn, D., Bronwyn, L., & Ku, S. (1997). Hotbeds of crime? Crime and public housing in urban Sydney. Crime and Delinquency, 45(2), 256.

Weaver, F., & Carroll, J. (1985). Crime perceptions in natural setting by expert and novice shoplifters. Social Psychology Quarterly, 48, 349-359.

This article, despite its title, does not involve nature in the sense of the out-of-doors, but rather settings natural to shoplifters (e.g., retail stores). The authors conducted walking interviews with 17 expert and 17 novice shoplifters. As they walked through the establishments the offenders thought aloud, explaining their analysis and strategy development as they went. The study found that expert shoplifters "were deterred by strategic difficulties, e.g., size of the item. The experts, unlike the novices, viewed store personnel and security devices (intentional deterrents) as overcomeable obstacles. The latter group decided to abort shoplifting in the face of such deterrents. These findings are important in their correlation with studies such as those on burglary which compare perceptions of burglars of varying degrees of experience. The reader is lead to conclude that deterrents of differing kind and degree affect the range of offenders in differing manners. Thus a layering of defenses or deterrents is necessary to have the greatest success.

Webster, W. (1986). Crime in the United States-1985. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Weidemann, S., Anderson, J., O'Donnell, P., & Butterfield, D. (1981). Resident safety: Research and recommendations for Longview Place Anti-crime Program. Urbana: University of Illinois at Champagne-Urbana, Housing Research and Development Program.

Weidemann, S., Anderson, J., O'Donnell, P., & Butterfield, D. (1983). Resident perceptions of satisfaction and safety: A basis for change in multi-family housing. Environment and Behavior, 14, 695-724.

Weinstein, J., Warren, B., & Kadushin, A. (1996). The applied research unit: Promoting community revitalization. American Sociological Association.

Weintraub, B. (2009). New Weapons in the Fight Against Gangs. Parks and Recreation, 44, 46-49.

This article describes a program called Summer Night Lights in Los Angeles.  The program involved youth-oriented activities during the evening in eight neighborhood parks and seems to have successfully reduced violent crime in those areas. 

Weir, A. (1973). The robbery offender. In F. Feeney & A. Weir (Eds.), The prevention and control of robbery, 1. Davis, CA: University of California.

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Weisburd, D., & Green, L. (1995). Measuring immediate spatial displacement: Methodological issues and problems. Crime and Place, 4, 349-361.

Weisburd, D. Wyckoff, J. Ready, J. Eck, J. Hickle, & F. Gajewski. (2006). Does Crime Just Move Around the Corner? A Controlled Study of the Spatial Displacement and Diffusion of Crime Control Benefits.” Criminology, 44(3), 549-591.

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Wekerle, G. R. (1992). A working guide for planning and designing safer urban environments. Toronto, Ontario: Safe City Committee, Planning and Development Department.

Wekerle, G. R. (2000). From eyes on the street to safe cities. Places, 13, 44--49.

Wekerke, G. R., & Whitzman, C. (1995). Safe cities: Guidelines for planning, design, and management.  New York, NY: Van Nostrand Press.

Wekerke, G. R., & Whitzman, C. (1999). Controlling urban crime: What can cities do? Planning Canada, 36(2), 7-11.

Welsh, Brandon C. and Farrington, David P. (2004). Surveillance for crime prevention in public space: Results and policy choices in Britain and America. Criminology and Public Policy. 3(3), 497-526.

Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (1992). Crime prevention effects of closed circuit television: A systematic review. Home Office Research Study Number 252. London: Home Office.

Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Value for money? A review of the costs and benefits of situational crime prevention. British Journal of Criminology, 39(3), 345-368.

Farrington, David P. & Welsh, Brandon C. (2004) Measuring the Effects of Improved Street Lighting on Crime: A Reply to Dr Marchant. British Journal of Criminology 44(3), 448-467.

Werthman, C., & Piliavin, I. (1968). Gang members and the police. In D. Bordua (Ed.), The Police: Six Sociological Essays. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.

West, M. J., (1985). Landscape views and stress response in the prison environment. (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

West, W. (1978). The short-term careers of serious thieves. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 20, 169-190.

Westinghouse Electric Corporation. (1978). Crime prevention through environmental design: Technical guideline 7: Public planning of outdoor areas. Arlington, VA: Author.

Westover, T. (1985). Perceptions of crime and safety in three Midwestern parks. The Professional Geographer, 37, 410-420.

This study looked at perceptions of crime as it affected behavior, and tested Garofalo's fear of crime model. Fear was examined through on-site interviews in urban and suburban parks. "Study results clearly demonstrated differences in safety-related perceptions and behavior between males and females."

Westover, T., Flickinger, T., & Chubb, M. (1980). Crime and law enforcement. Parks and Recreation, 15, 29-33.

Whitaker, C. (1986). Crime prevention measures (Special Report). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

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Whyte, W. H. (1985). The social life of small urban spaces. Washington, DC: The Conservation Foundation.

Whyte, W. H. (1988). City: Rediscovering the center. New York: Doubleday.

Chapter 3, Street People, discusses the people who work the streets of cities. Included along with vendors and postal delivery personnel are the lawless element. The author discusses these persons; the prostitute, the drug dealer, and the mugger. The discussions stem from field observation and time lapse analysis of movements and patterns on the streets. He briefly discusses some techniques of offenders such as pickpockets and others who work public outdoor places. Important points are made concerning the reaction of criminal communities to police presence and understanding differences between dangerous people and environments, and ones which are simply undesirable.

Wiedermann, D. (1985). How secure are public open spaces? Garten & Landschaft, 95, 26-27.

Wilcox, S. (1973). The geography of robbery: The prevention and control of robbery, Vol 3. Davis, CA: The Center of Administration of Criminal Justice, University of California at Davis.

Wiles, L.  (1987). Brighton beats crime by design. Architects’ Journal, 186(27), 13.

Wiles, P. (1975). Criminal statistics and sociological explanations of crime. In W.G. Carson & P. Wiles (Eds.), The Sociology of Crime and Delinquency in Britian, Vol. 1. London: Martin Robertson.

Wilkes, J. A. (1967). Ecological correlates of crime and delinquency. Task force report: Crime and its impact. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Wilkinson, J. F. (1992). Designing against malice. Architectural Record, 180, 110-113.

Willemse, H. (1996). Overlooking crime prevention: Ten years of crime prevention in the Netherlands. Security Journal, 7(3), 177-184.

Willie, C. V. (1967). The relative contribution of family status and economic status to juvenile delinquency. Social Problems, 14(3), 326-335.

Wilmoth, D. (1988). [Review of The Death and Life of Great American Cities: The Failure of Town Planning, by J. Jacobs]. Australian Geographer, 19(2).

Wilson, J. Q., & Boland, B. (1976). Crime. In G. Williams & N. Glaser (Eds.), The urban predicament. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Wilson, J. Q., & Kelling, G. (1982). Broken windows. The Atlantic Monthly, March, 29-38.

Wilson, R. (1963). Difficult housing estates. London: Tavistock.

Wilson, S. (1978). Updating defensible space. Architects Journal, 11, 674.

Wilson, S. (1978b). Vandalism and 'defensible space' on London housing estates. In R. V. Clarke (Ed), Tackling vandalism (Home Office Research Study No. 47). London: H.M.S.O.

This study is concerned with the extent to which vandalism is affected by building design and layout. Results from a survey of London municipal housing estates provide limited support for Newman's 'defensible space' ideas and also show the relevance for vandalism of the densities at which children are accommodated on estates.*

Wilson, S. (1980). Vandalism and defensible space on London housing estates. In R.V.G. Clarke & P. Mayhew (Eds.), Designing Out Crime. London: Home Office.

Winchester, S., & Jackson, H. (1982). Residential burglary: The limits of prevention (Home Office Research Study No. 74). London: H.M.S.O.

Wise, J. (1983). Urban environments and altered behavior: Crime and fear of crime. Paper presented at 14th International Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association, Lincoln, NE : University of Nebraska,.

Wolf, K. L. (2010). Crime and Fear - A Literature Review. In Green cities: Good health (www.greenhealth.washington.edu). College of the Environment, University of Washington.

Wolf, P., & Hague, R. (1975). Criminal violence in three Scandinavian countries: Scandanavian studies in criminolog. London: Tavistock.

Wolfer, L., Baker, T. E., & Zezza, R. Problem-solving policing: Eliminating hot spots. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 68(9), 9.

Wolfgang, M. E. (1963). Uniform crime reports: A critical appraisal. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 111(6), 708-738.

Wolfgang, M. E. (1966). Patterns in criminal homicide. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.

Wolfgang, M. E. (1970). Urban crime. In J.Q. Wilson (Ed.), The metropolitan enigma. New York, NY: Anchor Books.

Wolfgang, M. E., Figlio, R. M., & Sellin, T. (1972). Delinquency in a birth cohort. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.

Won, G., & Yamamoto, G. (1968). Social structure and deviant behavior: A study of shoplifting. Sociology and Social Research, 53.

Wood, D. (1981). In defense of indefensible space. In P. J. Brantingham, & P. L. Brantingham (Eds.), Environmental criminology. Beverly Hills: Sage.

In this chapter the author introduces the concept of "screens", a topic which has been for the most part overlooked. Tying into surveillance and concealment, Wood's screens are worth examining. He presents a typology of screens that includes function, mode, permeability, and range. Wood offers this perceptive observation: "the environment provides shelter for acts of deviance as a necessary consequence of its ordinary ongoing struggle to maintain itself, precisely as the forest provides shade for the growth of photophobic plants which die or wither in the sunlight. The trees no more intend to provide the shade immediately invaded by the mosses and ferns, liverworts and wildflowers, than the farmer does who in erecting his barn provides a place behind which little children can smoke. But the trees and the farmer do not intend to do so either. It is a necessary attendant consequence." (93; emphasis his)

Worden, M. A. (1980). Criminogenic correlates of intermetropolitan crime rates, 1960 and 1970. In D. Georges-Abeyie & K.D. Harries (Eds.), Crime: A spatial perspective. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Wright, J. L., & Thomas, R. L. (1992). Crime prevention through environmental design. Aslet Journal, 7(3), 14-17.

Wright, R. (1974). Study to determine the impact of street lighting on street crime: Phase I, final report. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

Wright, R. (1974b). The harassed decision maker: Time pressures, distractions and the use of evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 551-561.

Wright, R., & Bennett, T. (1990). Exploring the offender's perspective: Observing and interviewing criminals. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Wright, R., & Decker, S. H. (1994). Burglars on the job: Street and residential break-ins. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Wright, R., Decker, S. H., Redfern, A. K., & Smith, D. L. (1992). A snowball's chance in hell: Doing fieldwork with active residential burglars. Journal of Research in crime and delinquency, 29, 148-161.

"Criminologists long have recognized the importance of field studies of active offenders. Nevertheless, the vast majority of them have shied away from researching criminals 'in the wild' in the belief that doing so is impractical. This article, based on the authors' fieldwork with 105 currently active residential burglars, challenges that assumption. Specifically, it describes how the authors went about finding these offenders and obtaining their cooperation. Further, it considers the difficulties involved in maintaining an on-going field relationship with those who lead chaotic lives. And lastly, the article outlines the characteristics of the sample, noting important ways in which it differs from one collected through criminal justice channels." (author's abstract)

Wright, R., Heilweil, M., Pelletier, P., & Dickinson, K. (1974). The  impact of street lighting on street crime. Ann Abour, MI: University of Michigan.

Wright, R., & Logie, R. H. (1988). How young house burglars choose targets. The Howard Journal, 27, 92-104.

This seminal work by two of the most experienced researchers of offenders' perceptions uses the photograph and interview method to "determine what features of the immediate environment are important to juvenile house burglars in their selection of targets." Building on similar studies, significant differences were again found between criminals and the non-criminal control group. Burglars, being consistent as a group and also consistent with adult burglars in other studies, found "the presence of cover (surveillability), cars (occupancy), and dogs or alarms...as affecting their choices of houses" to offend. However, locks appeared to be "influential in deciding how to break in, but not in whether or not to do so."

Wright, R., Logie, R. H., & Decker, S. H. (1995). Criminal expertise and offender decision making: An experimental study of the target selection process in residential burglary. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 32, 39-53.

Yin, R., Vogel, M., Chaiken, J., & Both, D. (1976). Patrolling the neighborhood beat: Residents and residential security. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Zahm, D. (2007) Using Crime Prevention through Environmental Design in Problem-Solving. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police, Problem-Solving Tools Series, Number 8. US Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing. Washington, DC.

Zahm, D. (2005) Learning, translating and implementing CPTED. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 22(4), 284-293.

Zahm, D., & Cromwell, P. (Eds.). (1994). Proceedings of the International Seminar on Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis. Coral Gables, FL: Florida Statistical Analysis Center, Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute.

Zahm, D. (2004). Brighter is better. Or is it? The devil is in the details. Criminology and Public Policy. 3(3), 535-546.

Zahn, M., & Jamieson, K. (1997). Changing patterns of homicide and social policy. Homicide Studies, 1(2), 190-196.

Zay, N. (1963). Gaps in available statistics on crime and delinquency in Canada. Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 29(1), 75-89.

Zehring, T. L. (1994). Mesa crime-free multi-housing program. Law Enforcement Bulletin, 63(6), 8-12.

Zelinka, A., & Brennan, D. (2001). Safescape: Creating safer, more livable communities through planning design. Chicago, IL: Planners Press.

Zimbardo, P. (1973). A field experiment in auto-shaping. In C. Ward (Ed.), Vandalism. Stoneham, MA: Architectural Press.

Zimring, F. (1978). Policy experiments in general deterrence: 1970-1975. In A. Blumstein, J. Cohen & D. Nagin (Eds.), Deterrence and incapacitation: Estimating the effects of criminal sanctions on crime rates. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

Zimring, F., & Zuehl, J. (1986). Victim injury and death in urban robbery: A Chicago study. Journal of Legal Studies, 15, 1-40s.

Zola, I. K., Wheeler, S., Bonacich, E., & Cramer, M. R. (1968). Agents of delinquent control: A comparative analysis. In S. Wheeler (Ed.), Controlling delinquents. New York, NY: Wiley.

 

 

 

* Koehler, C. T. (1988). Urban design and crime: A partially annotated bibliography. Chicago, IL: Council of Planning Librarians, No. 218.


** indicates a quotation from the author(s) of the cited work.

 

Note: this bibliography is formatted according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition.  Errors may be brought to the attention of the authors for correction.

 

 


 

About the Authors

 

Sean E. Michael, PhD

Sean is Professor and Department Head of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at Utah State University.  He holds a PhD in wildland recreation at Virginia Tech, with his research addressing impacts from and deterrence of crime in urban parks, stressing offender behavior and spatial preferences coupled with multi-disciplinary strategies.  A security design consultant, he publishes and speaks to local, state and international audiences on the topic.  He is author of the first CPTED training program for landscape architects, entitled “Security Design: Strategy, Integration and Liability (see www.asla.org), and maintains a Web site on CPTED (www.thecptedpage.wsu.edu).  His recent efforts have included work on the security component of the draft Sustainable Sites Initiative report, and a summer distance-delivered course entitled Security Design through Washington State University. 

 

Gregory Saville, MES, MCIP

Greg is a former police officer and is currently an urban planner specializing in CPTED and Safe Growth methods. He writes a weekly blog on CPTED and SafeGrowth at www.safe-growth.blogspot.com. He co-founded the International CPTED Association, and was a partner in Canada's first consulting firm to specialize in CPTED. He is senior partner at AlterNation, a consulting firm dedicated to creating safer places and community building. Greg is a former faculty member at Florida State University’s School of Criminology and ran the University of New Haven’s center for advanced public safety research.  In 2007, he created the SafeGrowth program for neighborhood safety and launched it at the UN Habitat program in Santiago, Chile.

 

Joel W. Warren

Joel first became interested in environmental criminology as a student in an introduction to GIS course. One of his favorite undergraduate projects was creating a map of possible drug-smuggling routes in Arizona's public lands based on environmental factors. Joel graduated from Brigham Young University with a BA in Geography; emphasis in Urban/Environmental Planning. As a graduate student at Utah State University in the Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning program his thesis will examine spatial relationships between burglary patterns and public transportation. He believes that the careful study, planning, and design of urban environments can help create safer, more socially successful neighborhoods.